Traffic&Transportation Journal
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Vittorio A. Torbianelli
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
This article gives an economic and organisational analysis of the intermodal transport se1vice by means of Ro-Ro vessels between Turkey and central Europe through the port of Trieste.Many traits of this service are innovative, at least in the Mediterranean.To mention but a few: the geographical area it connects,the rapid geo-political evolution, the independent managingof the maritime route by a cons01tium of road transport companies, the use of combined road/ rail transport to reachthe European market, the air transfer of drivers, the transformationto the structure of the companies, etc. This service offersindeed a valuable example- not only because of its supeliorlogisticalefficiency compared to the road or container ship options-for the future of transport between Europe (in particularcentral- eastern European count1ies) and the new markets inthe Levant, located behind the Eastern Mediterranean shores.

Nada Štrumberger, Natalija Maletić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
Four shipyards are located in the area of the Kvamer Bay,and they normally, at more or less regular intervals pe!form thecleaning of ship hulls. Due to the lack of necessary financialmeans, these processes usually mean applying of solid abrasiveswhich, due to their characteristics cause significant environmentalpollution.This paper presents the impact of individual shipyards, withregard to the extent of given se1vice - the treated area in squaredmetres, on the global pollution of the Kvamer Bay as well aspreventive and recovery measures that are feasible on a locallevel with the aim of reducing pollution.

Jurij Kolenc, Livij Jakomin, Igor Trupac, Ivan Smerdu
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
This paper deals wiLh the selected optimisation approach tocontainer chain technology, focusing on the consignment ofcwgo from the shipper. The basic characteristics of the containerchain technology are analysed first, followed by establishingthe optimisation possibilities. A hypothesis is set assertingthat the technology of all the chain pwts has to be optimisedin order to achieve optimum functioning of the containerchain. Therefore, the container chain has been analysed as asystem consisting of subsystems of the shippe1; transpmtation,swrage and receiver (consignee). Due to similarity of the optimisationprocesses, we have only dealt with the optimisationprocess of the container chain technology from the shipper'sview, for the case of streamlining of the current condition, reconstructionand project design on new mganisation scheme.

Jasna Jurum Kipke, Nada Štrumberger, Dražen Kovačević
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
The paper considers the role of the Croatian sea harbours,the Croatian ports, 1iver navigation and wateiWays dependingon the transport routes between the Adriatic and the Danuberegion.The strategic and economic position best describes the roleof the economic bridge spanning the N01th and the South,whether speaking of the Adriatic corrid01; which has harbourswith all kinds of technologies, or of the combined transportAdriatic - Danube-region co1Tidor, and our river ports.Conside1ing the difficulties cwTently present due to the wardestruction, which have disturbed the technological processesat our harbours and ports, as well as the Adriatic - Danube-region commodity trade, we have to continue investing allour efforts in order to prevent our harbours and p01ts of beinglimiting factors of cargo flows between the Adriatic and theDanube-region.Taking into account the transportation flows towards theCentral European countries, our duty is to create modem andcompetitive traffic and thus emphasise our role on the Europeanand world market.

Gordana Štefančić, Josip Gracin, Mladenko Kordić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
The work considers the strategy of urban public transp01tplanning through the problem of road and public transport withtraffic congestion. Approaches and measures for their eliminationare presented.The aim is to organise urban transp01t with urban environmelll.

Željka Šiljković, Martin Glamuzina, Dražen Topolnik
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 6
The authors consider the existing state of railway transportin Croatia which is characterised by insufficient developmentand backward technology. These make specific obstructionsfor the Croatian joining of the trans-European integration processes.A solution that would make Croatia an important nodein linking the European East and West, i.e. South and North isproposed. In this way two leading centres would be activated:Zagreb and Rijeka. Regarding inland transversal/inking priorityis given to modernisation and reconstruction of an essentialdirection ofCroatian North and South which links two leadingindustrial and population centres: Zagreb and Split.This would enable the economic and social revival of Dalmatianinfluence within Croatian economy.

Ivan Smerdu
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
It is understandable that any measure affecting the productivityof road commercial vehicles is faced with opposition bythe holders and operators oftransp011 companies. This oppositionis so much the greater as much as its preparation and presentationhave been insufficient. The opinion that ecologicalmeasures have a negative impact on the productivity of roadcommercial vehicles is quite widespread: however, laying sucha great stress on that opinion is rather exaggerated. In the courseof introducing ecological measures, a fall in productivity occurs,as a rule, which applies to the time required for the transportcompanies to adapt to it. The duration of the adaptationstage depends on the type of measure and the viability of thecompanies. If the adaptation of entetprises is integral and efficient,the original productivity will be swpassed after the initialfall.

Damir Šimulčik, Ivan Bošnjak, Ivo Ban
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
Valorisation of tourist potentials as a guideline for theachievement of strategic determinants of Croatia 's tourism isone of the main determinants of the economic system ofCroatia for the period of upcoming years. Realisation of this determinantis not possible without the implementation of a longterm transport policy and a policy for financing the constructionand maintenance of traffic infrastructure facilities, alongwith other already mentioned factors which exist within theframework of social and economic reality including tourist indusl!y.This indicates that Croatia must take a clear stand with respectto the determining of the traffic infrastructure constructionand maintenance strategy, as the main precondition realisingthe strategic determinants ofCroatian tourism.The authors stmt from the basic conditions of determiningthe strategy traffic infrastructure facilities construction andmaintenance in the function of attaining already set developmentstrategies ofCroatia's tourism. Synchronisation as a pa1tof the process of realisation is possible if it is possible to determinethe feasibility and capability of those responsible for therealisation of the strategy and development of traffic infrastructureand tourist indus!ly. If it is not realised on the level of itsfeasibility, then the only thing we get is one more declarativedocument in the field of economic activity.

Vlado Lipovac, Antun Sertić, Mateo Milković
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
Taking advantage of GSM's elaborated mobility managementand its intemational roaming capability, the IntemationalUnion of European Railroad Operators (UJC) has decidedto build a supra-national rail radio network based on enhancedGSM technology.In this pape1; some implemmtation aspects specific to railroadradio environment resulting from the effects of vehiclespeed - in particular Doppler shift - are discussed, and an'off-line' algorithm for the traffic handover is proposed, whichoffers bel/er radio link reliability and less critical timing constraintsthan conventional handover schemes. More reliablehandover is of vital significance in the case of high-speed trainssince the radio link is supposed to cany the automatic controlsignals (ATC), too.

Miroslav Mikula, Mladen Begović, Dragan Peraković
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
The paper analyses the problem of equipping the roads withinformation and communication infrastructure, for whichthere are no national standards in Croatia yet, so that everythingis left to the skills and experience of the designer. In orderto solve this problem, the paper suggests standards and proceduresfor defining the information and communication equipmentfor the roads.

Dražen Kovačević, Arijana Macura, Branko Maković
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
Computer resources represent a significant factor in the developmentof a society. Their distribution to users' locationsand direct connections through telecommunication systemssubstantially increase their significance and role.Modem telecommunication systems are integral systemsfor voice and data transmission. This paper studies data transferfrom the technical, technological and organisational aspect.Due to the wide scope of the topic, only some relevant data arementioned that dete1mine the characteristics of certain datatransfer systems.

Davor Franjković, Tino Bucak, Nikica Hoti
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
In this article the technical description of the Ground ProximityWaming System (GPWS) is presented in order to considersome of the flying safety factors in commercial aviation,as well as the aspects of interaction between the pilot and thesystem itself during the flight. Since it has been confirmed inpractice that the installation and utilisation of GPWS in aircraftsignificantly reduces the hazards caused by the ControlledFlight Into Ten·ain (CFIT) further development of GPWSequipment presents one of the most important steps in preventingthe ultimate consequences of such aircraft disasters.

Nada Štrumberger, Jasna Jurum Kipke, Gordana Štefančić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
Recycling means re-introducing waste material into theproduction process, as addition to primary resources. The useof waste as secondary raw material is economically justified. Byusing old material not only primary raw material is saved, butenergy as well.The paper presents the most frequent materials, the ways inwhich they are collected, and subsequent classification. Thesorting procedures have been mentioned, with throughput capacityan imp01tant parameter expressed in tonnes per hour.The higher the throughput capacity, the better the effect of sorting.

Pave Marinović, Grgo Luburić, Slavko Suk
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 5
The development of combined transport is highly requiredby the European countries. The pressure, both administrativeand economic, is growing continuously for the use of railway asthe ecologically most suitable land carrier. Considering the protectionof roads, ecological, political and other reasons,Croatia will have to define her policy toward the 'Piggyback'transport in transit (mainly through conidors X and Vb). No efficientintegration into the European system of combined transportcan be expected without the necessa1y stimulating measuresby the government and without a clearly defined transportpolicy.

Elena Maggi, Marco Mazzarino
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
The problem of the safety improvement and pollution preventionin maritime tra11Sp011 has become more and more criticaland urgent to solve. In fact, the number of accidents at seahas increased very quickly over time. Concern is growing aboutpoor qualification on safety and poor management standardsin shipping industry. The ISM Code (Intenzational Safety ManagementCode) aims to provide intemational standards for safemanagement of ship operations and for pollution prevention.The paper, which presents a part of the work done by the Universityof Trieste - ISTIEE within the framework of theMETHAR project, aims to identify the expected supp01t fromthe MaJitime Education and Training (MET) systems to implemmttheISM Code, consequently improving safety and preventingpollution. The paper desCiibes first the 01igin, the objectivesof the ISM Code and the standard requirements on METidentified by the Code. Secondly, it summarises the opinions ofthe operators collected through questionnaires. Finally, it identifiesthe possible enrichment of the MET system in order tobel/.er optimise the implementation of the Code.

Vinko Tomas, Ivan Vlahenić, Ivica Šegulja
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
The intemational legislation places strict requirements onthe safety of navigation and the marine environment. One ofthe solutions to the problem is to enhance the ship navigationcontrol and maintenance with extensive use of informationtechnology, which has largely contributed to the growth of communicationtechnology. On the basis of an analysis of ship systemsautomation in the past, this paper deals with the developmentsand improvements to be expected ill the near future.Four generations of shipboard automation are presented, includingthe characteristics and requirements that the automationof ship control and monitming systems must fulflll in orderto be classified under a particular generation. Fields of furtherenhancement are considered as these will be decisive in increasingthe efficiency of business operations and ship safety.For the pwpose of supporting the claims above, actual trends inthe development of standards, equipment and systems havebeen analysed as well as their impact Oil the ship owner and thecrew.

Jurij Kolenc
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
The paper analyses the actual problems and procedures instudying ergonomics in transportation. Special emphasis is puton the specific features of the problem and the research developmentin accordance with the characteristics of the singlesub-systems and elements of the transportation system and researchapproaches.According to the structure of the development and actualproblems of the research, the following approaches have beenanalysed: psycho-physiological, systemic and technical, cybernetic,exploitation, and pedagogic, within which also the basictasks of studying ergonomics in transp01tation have been indicated.

Ivan Mavrin, Dražen Kovačević, Branko Maković
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the 'alternator- alternator belt' system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

Stanislav Pavlin, Adolf Malić, Željko Radačić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
Zagreb Airpor covers an area of 300 ha. The space is almostcompletely covered by vmious ailp011 facilities, buildingsand areas. The new role of the Zagreb Airport, the main airportof the independent Croatia is also the domicile of the air-ea/TierCroatia Airlines. It is also the main air base of the Croatian AirForce.Therefore, the capacities need to be expanded and modernised,especially regarding handling of passengers, luggage,cargo, mail and aircraft.The physical plan of the city of Zagreb includes ai1port developmentat the extended cun-entlocation. The first phase ofthe Master Plan includes the construction of a new passengerterminal and accompanying buildings and areas (tax.iways,aprons, parking lots, access roads ... ) and a long-te1m constructionof the second runway.The paper presents the expected traffic, necessary capacitiesand the physical plan regarding the Zagreb Ailp011 development.The implementation of sophisticated technical and technologicalsolutions is planned in the process of handling thepassengers, luggage, cargo, mail and aircraft.

Alojz Brkić, Ivan Švaljek, Vinko Jenić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
Numerous inhabitants of the Krapina-Zag01je county fulfiltheir needs (work, education, trade) in the City of Zagreb. Themain passenger streams are related to railway transportationwhich, due to insufficient investments in the infrastructure andtransportation means, shows decrease in the service quality. Amodel is proposed for organising suburban and urban railwaytransp011ation in the Krapina-Zag01je county and the City ofZagreb, which would offer better quality in transportation services,increase economic efficiency of railway transp01tation,and thus eliminate the 1isk of having to close down cerlain railroadsin the county.

Igor Trupac
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 4
The article deals with transporl (and logistic) integration ofSlovenia with EU. Because of its position Slovenia has goodopportunities for transportation activities. Transpmtation (andlogistics) is also of extraordinwy imp01tance for economic developmentand appearance on the European and other markets.

Wolf Tietze, Marie-Luise Steinmann-Tietze
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The aim of this study is to draw attention to the developmentopportunities presented to the population of Europe andbeyond, on the threshold of the 2JS1 centwy, resulting from thenew geopolitical situation and available technical innovations,plus the necessary decision-making required in the field oftransport politics. With the introduction of the unitary money,the Euro, giving further definition to the continental economicregion, new needs arise demanding an appropriate transportsystem. For this a Europe-wide Maglev net is essential. It musttake over quickly an increasing part of the traffic now carried inpart by road, in part by the conventional railway, in part by air.It appears wise to consider critically and to amend the generallyuncoordinated and partial renewals of the old system from thepoint of view of a continental-wide future, and with reference tothe superior ecological and economic advantages of moderntechniques coming to fruition in the Transrapid system. Theconsequences for future settlement structures and site evaluationare demonstrated by examples. The contrasts between thesystems should be clear in the comparative table of data (Table1). In addition, basic technical and political considerations arepresented by vGiious European experts in the booklet'Transrapid-Verkehr in Europa' [1].

Jurgen Gausemeier, Markus Henke, Xiaobo Liu, Bernd Riepe
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
Securing of our future necessitates product and service innovations.These innovations will decisively contribute to thecreation of jobs and to the maintenance of high standard of livingas well as enabling sustainable development. Great opportunitiesfor products and services for the markets of tomorrowarise as a result of the combined growth of companies andeconomies, together with the dynamic development of technology.One rapidly growing innovation area is that of track-basedtransport systems. After an era of partial improvements to thefundamental techniques of the previous centwy, the time is ripeto move to new methods for the race to the future.

Jaume Font, Rosel Majoral
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
In this article we analyse the process of development andthe functional characteristics of the road network in the CatalanPyrenees. The study is divided in three main sections: 1) ananalysis of the geographical factors that have been determinantin the growth of the network; 2) a description of the process ofits regional implementation and 3) its current state, includingan evaluation of the plans now in the process of being implementedand recent improvements and an analysis of the significanceof two major undertakings - the Llobregat Axis and thetunnel of Cadi. Special emphasis is placed throughout the wticleon the concept of network integration Labasse, J. 1971),which we define as the degree of connectivity of the comarcas(provincial subdivisions) of the Catalan Pyrenees and theircentres of population to a general road network.This mticle has drawn on both documentmy and bibliographicsources but is based principally on J. Font's doctoralthesis, which analyses the growth of the Catalan road network.Few geographical studies of the transpmt network of the southemslopes of the Pyrenees have been published, be it in Catalanor Spanish journals. This stands in marked contrast to the attentiondedicated to the subject by French academic publications(Pyrenees, Revue de Geograhie des Pyrenees et duSud-Ouest). This said, howevet; we should not overlook thestudies undettaken in Spain by A. Escalona ( 1888), above allthose carried out in the A rag on Pyrenees. Any other articles describingthe Catalan Pyrenees, though, must be tracked down inindividual chapters of regional monographs, both ancient(Sole Sabaris, L. 1951; Llobet, S., 1947) and modem (L6pezPalomeque, F., 1986).The data sources desctibing the Pyrenees transport networkhave improved considerably in recent years. This is due to thegrowth in number of applied studies sponsored by the variousbodies of public administration following the re-establishmentof democracy in Spain (1977) and the restoration of theGeneralitat, the autonomous Catalan government. Amongthese studies, at the comarcal level, the most outstanding arethe comarcal plans for upland areas (Plans Comarcals deMuntanya), carried out at the instigation of the Generalitat andin which the transport network of the comarcas of the Pyreneesare analysed exhaustively; while at the regional level the mostoutstanding source is the study known as the Pla de Carreteresde Catalunya (Generalitat de Catalunya, 1987)- the Road NetworkPlan for Catalonia. These studies, and others of similar importance (MAB-6 programme; Gurera, J., 1988), offer anenviable level of information about the transport network of thecomarcas of the Pyrenees and their prospects for short-term improvement.

Konard Schiliephake, Wolf Tietze
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
In general, transport by airis the fastest mode of traffic. Ineconomical and ecological terms, however, it appears less desirable.Moreover, its glory is usually confined to non-stop-linksexcept when bridging land-sea inte1jaces or ve1y long distances.Its current stand is mostly based on the lack of competing .systems.Therefore, the capacity of ailports is in many cases beingextended. Attempts by railways to establish attractive alternativesof transp01t are not promising. In contrast, a transrapidnet would provide substantial improvement as shown by the exampleof Germany which in this respect stands for most of Europe.

Gabriel Wackermann
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The emergence of the Se/Vice economy and the globalisationput an end io the theory of central places elaborated byChristaller and Losch at the end of the industrial period. Thegrowing mobility of persons and goods and the breakthrough oftechnologies favowing speed and information flows have giventhe main importance to the notion of space-time. The resultingmutation of transp01t, renders ever more emphasis to the networkconnection of relais stations and gives 1ise to network .systemsdevelopment, especially at large scale, that reduces considerablythe interest of old urban hierarchical pattems approp1iare10 a relatively static era which has now gone by in the developedcountries.

Luca Bertolini
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The future of transport, whatever it will be, cannot be consideredseparately from that of cities. But what, where and whenis the city today? The ability to provide opportunities for humaninteraction is the essential reason for cities to exist. In thepre-industrial past this required high-density, compact urbanforms. Modem transport and communication techniques havehowever increasingly offered human beings ways of interactingat a distance. Physical proximity is no longer needed by manytypes of urban activities. As a result, cities have decentralised,as industry first, then residences and services have fled the diseconomiesof high-density agglomerations. For the future,some even predict the advent of an entirely diffuse, 'virtual' city.Actual evidence is at best mixed. Next to ongoing decentralisation,there are also signals that point in the opposite direction,as there are activities that show a tendency to physicallyconcentrate, underscoring a persistent need for physical humaninteraction. These activities include business and financial services,the emerging sectors of culture, entertainment and themedia, but also certain types of residences and of production.As a result, rather than decentralisation or concentration, contemporarycities show a complex combination of decentralisationand concentration.How will these contrasting movements shape the cities ofthe future? Are telecommunication technologies going to radicallyalter current trends? Or will the quest for sustainability dothis? And what will the role of transp01tation- as cause and effect-be? The diffuse urban-regional accessibility warranted bythe car and the inter-metropolitan connections provided by theaeroplane have been essential conditions for the urbanisationpatterns of the recent past. But will the car and the aeroplanealso be the transportation means of the cities of the future?

Bertil Haggman
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
An attempt is made in this essay to explain the importanceof a new link around the Baltic Sea being constructed to thecore of Europe with a possible net of the Superspeed MaglevSystem Transrapid with a speed of 300 miles/hr.The geopolitics of Baltic Sea communication is to a greatextent based on the peripherial position of Europe's northeastemcountries. A Transrapid net around the Baltic Sea wouldlink these countries to the core of Europe. An imp01tant ingredientin the link are bridges and tunnels. The Oresund FixedLink with its fUnnel and bridge will be the first fiXed link betweenDenmark and the Scandinavian peninsula in hist01y andfully completed in the summer of 2000. A railway tunnel betweenElsinore (Denmark) and Helsingborg (Sweden) isneeded in the beginning of the 21st century as an additionallink. Other submarine tunnel projects of geopolitical importanceare the Fehmam Belt and Falster Belt [!X.ed links betweenGe1many and Scandinavia as well as Nontiilje (Sweden) -Mariehamn (A land Islands) -Abo/Turkku (Finland) and Helsinki(Finland) - Tallinn (Estonia) tunnels.lmp01tant new possibilities exist for extending tunnel construction.The Symonds Group (an important London constructionand planning company) is working on prefab submalinetunnels. These are expected to be used across the St.George Channel between Dublin and Holyhead (about 90km). The tunnel technique has been used for the Oresund FixedLink and the Danish tunnel section of the link was completedin March 1999. Sweden, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia,Lithuania and n01thwestem Russia would receive a structuralboost with substantial consequences with the new TransrapidNet and its submarine and bridge links.

Sergey Shlikhter
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
While the Russian space has extended over ve1y large paJtsof Eurasia its economic consistency and growth was primarilydepending on the development of a huge railway net. It was alsoparamount for the strength of the Soviet empire. Technicallyand administratively, however, the transport system has beenisolated from its neighbours. This may prove disadvantageousin the future when much closer economic cooperation in particularwith Europe will gain in importance. To satisfy theseneeds, a dual transport system - Russian railways plus transcontinentalmaglev lines, may be the key solution.

Veselina Urucu, Mircea Buza
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

Adolf Malić, Dragan Badanjak, Antun Stipetić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The paper deals with the prospective development of moderntransport technologies for 2Jih century as a precondition forintegration of Croatia with Europe. By its geographical position,Croatia is an eminently European country. Her transportinfrastructure and technological transp01t solutions present todaysignificant hindrance to its integration with Europe.The Transrapid railway system is a novel technologicaltransport form that could be developed in Croatia, within theEuropean Transrapid network. Fwthermore, Croatia has greatexpectations in the development of air transport even by airbuses for transporting cargo and passengers. Special attentionwill be paid to organising high-speed suburban traffic inZagreb, based on the railway.

Wigand Ritter
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
In this paper chances and some of the difficulties for the introductionof Transrapid in the Near East are discussed. 11seems imp01tanl notlo regard this area as an extension of Europebut as having specific needs for rapid transporl. Like therailways about 100 years ago Transrapid will not fit smoothlyinto Near-Eastern patterns of economic and social life and theessential precondition of peace and of co-operation betweenthe governments may not be fulfilled within the next 50 years. Inthe author's opinion a transarabian axis between Jeddah andMasqat is the most auspicious project one can think of today. Astarl might be made with il any lime, that is at/he very momentwhen Transrapid will have proven its usefulness and profitability.

Shao-Ying Chu
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
China is by far the largest unifO!m economic region of theworld. It is growing fast both in relative and in absolute terms.Principal decisions need to be taken before long to establish anadequate transport system covering distances of up to 5000 kmeasily in one day and serving numerous intermediate junctionsat short time intervals. Even long distance connections acrossthe Asian continent with India and with Europe must be takeninto consideration.

Wolf Tietze
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev).This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

Čedomir Ivaković, Ivan Legac, Ivan Mavrin
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The paper analyses new projects of the European trafficnetwork as well as the extension of conidors defined in 1997 inHelsinki. For connecting of the Baltic and Central Europeancoun/Jies with the Ad1iatic, the projects TEM 1 and 2, ViaBaltica and TINA are of great importance. The programme ofthe TINA project includes road and railway conidors and relieson the 7th Danube conidor. The interrelations between trafficbranches in the EU are presented, with the greatest share ofroad traffic, followed by railway and 1iver traffic. The compOiisonindicates similar relations between single transp01tationbranches in the period from 1979 to 1991 in the Republic ofCroatia.

Blaž Bogović, Antun Stipetić, Dragan Badanjak
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The paper considers the need for COilSt/Ucting high-speedrailway lines in Croatia that would represent a part of Europeanhigh-speed railway network. The economic value of theseprojects is studied and highlighted, within the technological developmentof Croatia, with high-speed tracks as prerequisite forintegration into the European exchange flows.Considering the traffic component of Croatia, scientific researchis proposed, as well as determining and defining of optimalsolutions for the const/Uction of high-speed railway tracks.

Zdravko Bukljaš
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The paper starts by dealing with the development tendenciesof modem road vehicles and their characteristics. The emphasisis on the issues of reducing environmental pollution,conventional fuel consumption, and of reducing traffic injuries,at the same time increasing riding comforl, vehicles quality,easier and better vehicle maintenance, and lower cost of vehiclesand their maintenance.The second parl deals with the railway vehicles and theircharacteristics which are to be developed in the future. Attentionis paid to the possibilities of technical improvements regardingengine, propulsion technique, braking methods, casedesign and energy transmissionSome conceptual solutions are given that should be implememedin the future, as well as solutions that have been recentlyimplemented and represent useful technical improvements.

Jasna Golubić, Nada Štrumberger, jasna Jurum-Kipke
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
Considering the current trends, traffic in 2030 will economicallyand socially burden the society and move away from thesustainability regarding the environment. The paper presentsthe development orientation of the Republic of Croatia in certaintraiiSport branches that will contribute to the efficient environmentalprotection, since protection of the Croatian naturaland civilisation values represents an important strategic orientationof the Republic of Croatia and one of the integration facwrsof the 21'1 century Europe.

Sanja Steiner, Željko Radačić, Stanislav Pavlin
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
The paper analyses the guidelines regarding air traffic developmentin Croatia within the context of integration processesof the European countries, which has been articulated bythe EATCHIP and EATMS project as a unique European airtraffic management. The positive projection of the developmentis based on the re-integration of the intemational airroutes (overflights) with the Croatian interests from thegeotraffic aspect mostly overlapping with the interests ofSlovenia and Bosnia and He1zegovina. As conclusion, a conceptof common strategies of these countries is suggested, in requilingthe operationalisation of air conidors in this part of Europe.

Ivo Županović, Gordana Štefančić, Joso Vurdelja
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 2-3
Transportation of cargo and people, i.e. freight and passengerflows, belongs to the inevitable destiny of the humanity. Inmodem life and overall economic international integration, therole and significance of transportation branch is multiply complex,because free circulation of goods, people, capital and information,etc. are no longer a phenomenon which only followsthe found needs, but it represents a hypothesis of the overall developmentof a certain area. In the presence of the tendency towardsglobalisation of the humanity, increasing emphasis is puton the concentration of the transportation efficiency at certaintraffic corridors defined by favourable geographic and otherconditions for creating optima/traffic system. Defining of certaintraffic corridors is mainly carried out on the basis of trafficand transit conditions of the considered region (usually a country),as well as its physical infrastructure connections with theneighbouring communities.This logically leads to the following questions: Will croatia,when, in which way and to what extent, succeed in securing herplace in the traffic network of the 21st century europe?!The discussion regarding possible answers to these questionsis in fact the main topic of this paper.

Antun Sertić, Tomislav Mlinarić, Zvonko Kavran
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
This paper will try to present some of the causes which resultin vibrations during the train movement. Vibrations originateat the contact point between the undercarriage and thetracks. Theoretical analysis has been done of determining thespectral density of the acceleration process - vibrations of thenon-suspended and suspended locomotive mass, and then thevibrations of diesel electric locomotive type Hi 2061 weremeasured in different morphological conditions and geometricalstate of the track at different speeds. Based on the correlationand spectral analysis of the measured accelerations- vibrations,conclusions can be made about the condition of the trackand of the non-suspended mass of the locomotive. It should bestressed that determining the nature of vibrations is in the functionof determining the system reliability. If it refers to the trainand track in exploitation, the life time can be predicted, i.e. theoverhaul can be planned, and if it refers to the development,then we can use the results as the basis to determine modificationsand improvements.The efficiency of applying fuzzy logic in controlling the trainride with various input variables has been presented, where specialemphasis is put on the input variable which provides uswith the data on vibrations parameter. The analysis of vibrationsacting on the system, and the processing of the vibrationsparameter and the use of fuzzy logic provide us with the possibilityof controlling the train power plant.

Tomaž Tollazzi
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
Single-lane roundabouts may face the problems of gettingcrowded and empty in their circulatory roadway due to a strongstream of pedestrians and/or cyclists.Vehicles at the roundabout entries or exits have to providethe right of way over pedestrians and/or cyclists. Therefore, itcomes to disturbances and traffic jams.If there are jams at the entry carriageway, vehicles are unableto get into roundabouts. If there are jams at the exit carriageway,vehicles are not able to leave the roundabout. U'henthe length of vehicle platoon at the exit is so long that it reachesthe preceding entry, the roundabouts suffer from getting fullyovercrowded.The paper presents the methodology of calculating the reductionof the roundabout capacity due to the pedestrian or cycliststream.The method of calculating the reduction of the roundaboutcapacity with the disturbed streams may be used for roundaboutsin urban environments, where the strength of the cyclistor pedestrian streams is not negligible.

Ivan Dadić, Goran Kos, Krešimir Poić, Emil Gašparac
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
Traffic planners and designers are daily confronted by theproblems of traffic flow. Finding a solution for the optimal organisationof the traffic system in the wider (at the state level)and the narrower sense (cities, towns), requires accurate planningand adequate financing. With Croatia being a developingcountry that has higher investments into the traffic system, thematerial means need to be rati01~t~lised and the human andland resources cautiously managed. With the development andimplementation of the traffic studies, an improvement of thetraffic in cities can be expected. The work describes the trafficmeasures which provide higher quality traffic flow, with low investments.They can be used as guidelines in planning the trafficand as the first implementations of solutions from the trafficstudies.

Borivoj Galović, Sanja Steiner, Ernest Bazijanac
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
The paper deals with criteria and procedures in evaluationof timely preventive maintenance recommendations that willsupport continued safe operation of aging jet transports untiltheir retirement from service. The active service life of commercialaircraft has increased in recent years as a result of low fuelcost, and increasing costs and delivery times for fleet replacements.Air transport industry consensus is that older jet transportswill continue in service despite anticipated substantial increasesin required maintenance. Design concepts, supportedby testing, have worked well due to the system that is used to ensureflying safety. Continuing structural integrity by inspectionand overhaul recommendation above the level contained inmaintenance and service bulletins is additional requirement, insuch cases. Airplane structural safety depends on the performanceof all participants in the system and the responsibility forsafety cannot be delegated to a single participant. This systemhas three major participants: the manufacturers who design,build and support airplanes in service, the airlines who operate,inspect and mantain airplanes and the airworthiness authoritieswho establish rules and regulations, approve the design andpromote airline maintenance performance.

Josip Zavada, Zvonimir Pajić, Jasna Blašković
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
The paper presents the solution for the modification of thebrakes on the electric railcar series 6111 used in suburban traffic.It also gives the results of the performed measurements aswell as their analysis.The mentioned electric railcar is fitted with air and rheostaticbrakes whose activation is mutually independent. Sincesuburban traffic means frequent slopping, and since the enginedriver does not use the rheostatic brake regularly, but only theair brake, the wear of the brake lining and wheels is higher, andthe heat load on the brake elements is substantial. By regularapplication of rheostatic brake, the air brake could be LLSed lessthus contributing to a lower wear of the friction elements.The presented solution for the modification of the brakeconsists of co-ordinated and automatic action of the rheostaticand air brake with every braking

Jurij Kolenc, Kristi M. Bombol
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
The paper presents decomposition analysis of road transpOI·tation system using the ergonomic system ana~vsis. Theanalysis is performed by its 'Man-Vehicle', 'Man-Road' and'Man-Operation' subsystems treated as systems with their ownsubsystems.Since the ergonomic factors within road transportation systemwith its subsystems or elements are very complex and comprehensive,only the implications of the 'Driver-Vehicle' systemare analysed.

Antun Stipetić, Dragan Badanjak, Adolf Malić
1999 (Vol 11), Issue 1
The paper studies the possibility of constntction of a newrailway track section from the existing stop Gradec on the railwayline Zagreb - Koprivnica to the railway station Sveti !vanZabno on the railway line Kriievci - Bjelovar, thus improvingthe importance of the Bjelovar region and shortening the routeto Osijek by 16.5 km.

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