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Jelenko Švetak, Livij Jakomin
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
The results of the data analyses show that accidents mostlyinclude damages to the ship's hull and collisions. Generally allaccidents of ships can be divided into two basic categories.First, accidents in which measures for damage control shouldbe taken immediately, and second, those which require a littlemore patient reaction. The very fact that collisions belong to thefirst category provided the incentive for writing the current paper.The proposed model of optimal collision avoidance manoeuvreof ships on the basis of electronic data collection wasmade by means of the navigation simulator NTPRO- 1000,Transas manufacturer, Russian Federation.

Evelin Vatovec Krmac
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
The paper presents the most important supply chain technologies,including the latest applications and software toolsused by companies that operate in the transportation and logisticsfields. The primary goals of these technologies are informationexchanges within and between organizations and/or managingsupply chain related data and activities. New electroniclogistics applications are increasingly being moved off proprietarysystems and private networks onto the intemet. With thee-commerce market exploding, portals are becoming a key elementin bringing together an enterprise's employees, businesspartners, and customers - the principle actors of every supplychain - through one interface, accessible via the intemet. Becauseof this capacity they are sometimes called e-supply chainmega portals.

Eldo Raguž, Daniel Galić, Tomislav Kralj
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
The attempt of this work is to systematically find solutionsfor Mostar Airport development through technical and technologicalharmonization of traffic processes undertaken in twoseparate organizations - airport and air traffic control and coordinationbetween other traffic branches. The work uses theindicators of traffic flows and tourist trends in the region, andtogether with the mentioned simulations it attempts to evaluatethe traffic potentials in the region by affecting the change in thecurrent negative traffic flows at Mostar Airport.

Ivan Miloš, Dubravka Maras, Ivan Filipčić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
The Republic of Croatia, as well as many transition countries,is facing a number of difficulties in the field of transport,economy, foreign trade and foreign exchange transactions, externaland internal debt, social policy, demography, etc. In orderto solve these extremely complex problems it is necessary todetermine a strategy and an implementation plan of special instrumentsincluded in the state economic policy of the developmentof transport and economy. Until now the results haveshown that the implementation of conventional instrumentscannot lead to satisfactory results. One of the instruments of thecentral state economic policy - recognised internationally andmost frequently used instruments for solving the mentionedproblems without state investment and state risk - is the instituteof 'Free Zone'. The aim of this work is to help governmentauthorities and bodies to accept possibly quicker and more efficientsolutions to the actual problems by elaborating special instrumentsof state transport and economic policy and by proposingmeasures for their implementation in the Republic ofCroatia. Moreover, it invites professionals and scientists to contributethrough their expert knowledge in finding out new solutions.

Tomislav Hurtiš, Alen Križić, Dražen Vinščak
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
Deregulation of the railway transport in the EU, in particularthe acceptance of the E U instructions which regulate theright of 'the open access to the railway' is the reason forchanges on the European intermodal transport market. TheCommunity of European Railways creates the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways which will exclusively perform railfreight transport. That freeway net has been created in EUmember countries, but they are also extended to the countrieswith the candidate status for the membership in the EU, as wellas to the countries outside the European Union where the qualityof the railway infrastructure enables transport service to beperformed at the required level. Transport at the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways will be performed, for the most part,by the contemporary technologies which enable redirection ofthe goods from the road ways to the railways. Croatian Railwaysis planning to build and open truck terminals by the beginningof the year 2007 in Spacva, Split, Rijeka, Koprivnica andZagreb. This is necessary in order to introduce its own trains forthe transportation of trucks (so calledRo-La trains), which willhelp redirect approximately 150,000 heavy trucks a year fromthe roads to the railways. That way Croatia will profit at theecological and economic level, as well as regarding transportsafety.

Marinko Jurčević, Perica Madunić, Zdenko Galić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
The traffic market is, by its nature, a market without importantprerequisites for free competition, because there is notenough flexibility in either supply or demand, which means itdoes not have the basic economic prerequisites for market lawsto develop freely. The relations between traffic service supplyand demand cannot be automatically regulated by the trafficmarket. Therefore, the structuring of the traffic system and theregulating of relationships between specific traffic branches inthe traffic system cannot be left to the sole influence of the trafficmarket. The possibilities of the traffic market, i. e. the influenceon the establishment of a certain structure of the trafficsystem, are very limited. Therefore, the market is partly regulatedby the state and the state regulations of the supply/demandratio. State regulations are implemented through economicand traffic policies.

Zoltan Bokor, Adam Torok
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
Logistics has become one of the determining factors inHungarian economic policy. This is supported by the fact thatlogistics has been included into the key programmes of the 2'dHungarian National Development Plan. Intermodallogisticsservices belong to the most important instruments emphasisedby the Hungarian transport policy. Although there have beenseveral improvements in the field of logistics centres and combinedtransport the national intennodallogistics network cannotbe regarded as finished yet. That is why additional investmentsare needed. However, the new developments shall besupported by updated strategic conceptions taking into considerationthe current and future trends in technology and economy,with special regard to changed conditions coming fromjoining the EU This paper aims to analyse the national and internationalbackground of intermodal logistics strategy improvementsand furthermore to draw conclusions on the possibledevelopment directions applicable for specific Hungariancircumstances.

Ernest Bazijanac, Jasmina Pašagić, Tino Bucak
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 6
Owing to the implementation of increasingly advanced andefficient transport technologies, air traffic in the world is showingcontinuous growth and an increasing number of significantresults. Since it is a very complex process which requires adequatesynchronization of numerous factors in all the phases ofthe traffic process, it is very important to know all the componentsof the process. One of the fundamental determinants inthe success of the mentioned development lies also in the necessityof constant increase in the level of productivity as the bestresponse to an increasingly severe competition of other transportbranches, and the increasingly expressed requirements foreven more efficient effects.The development of technology, organization and throughimplementation of science the productivity of performance isincreased also in general in any activity including the air trafficactivity.Air traffic is a system with a very complex structure, the interiorand exterior elements of which are interconnected and theyinteract. Air traffic can be considered also both as a technicaland technological system.Both in the technical and technological system the aircraftis the basic means of air traffic, its active part, the main andunique link in the transport manufacture, thus conditioning itseffect on the efficiency of all the air traffic subsystems. The efficiencyof the aircraft as a transport system is considered regardingtwo criteria. One of these criteria is safety, and the other isthe efficiency of air traffic.

Sergej Težak, Ivan Mavrin, Ivo Jurić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
The paper studies the problem of constructing cablewayswith advanced technology and their influence on the operationand development of cableway companies from several aspects.Modern cableways with detachable grips enable faster ca'iageof passengers. They have the possibility of transporting morepassengers over the same distances. Recently, this trend of introducingmodern cableways has been particularly present inchairlifts which carry skiers. Such chairlifts with detachablegrips allow transport of skiers over greater distances and thereforemust have respective ski slopes covering wider areas whichin turn affects the expansion of the mountain tourist centres.The chairlifts with detachable grips require more knowledgeand personnel to manage and maintain them, as well as moreinvestment capital.

Željko Radačić, Mirko Tatalović, Ivan Mišetić, Ivan Furlan
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
By defining and selecting adequate factors of the total productivitymodel and by assigning specific relevance of each factor,the initial preconditions for the analysis and monitoring ofthe model application efficiency within the Croatia Airlinesbusiness policy have been established. Since the majority of theanalyzed factors have realized a more intensive growth thanplanned, the business year 2004 can be assessed as the mostsuccessful one in the Croatia Airlines history. Consequently,the difference related to the productivity indicators of the Associationof European Airlines has been reduced, particularly theaircraft productivity with remnant of 5 to 10 percent, and theproductivity of the employees with a remnant of 15 to 20 percent,and the productivity of fuel expressed as quantity at AEAlevel, and expressed as value below that level. Finally, althoughthere is no expressed correlation between the quantitative productivityindicators and business profitability, the highest realizednet profit since the foundation of Croatia Airlines fullysupplements the solid level of the comparison indicators, confirmingits complete readiness and maturity to join the Star Alliance.

Husein Pašagić, Antun Štimac, Jelena Rakulj
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
Public urban traffic (PUT) requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive orientation to the environmentwith concwTent reduction in the costs of resources,energy and number of automobiles on the traffic routes.

Bibiana Bukova, Zuzana Svecova
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
Smarl dust utilization is a futuristic concept that considersthe usage of equipment called smart dust in the railway transporl.It appears from the technology of the near future, whosebasis are tiny sensors able to collect, process and wirelesslytransfer information. The main idea of this technology is thepossibility, in a certain space (for example inside the wagon) torecreate hundreds of tiny sensors that are designed to sense,measure and transmit data like temperature, humidity or thepower of frequency of vibrations, so they would allow detectionof some devices, people manner in some space or detailedcheck of a given surrounding.

Andrej Novak
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
The paper analyses the Radio Direction Finding principlefor navigation and swveillance system. Radio Direction Findinginvolves locating the bearing of a transmitter called a radiobeacon. A radio beacon's signal is received aboard a vehicle bya device called radio direction finder (RDF). The navigatorturns the antenna of the radio direction finder to find the directionof the radio beacon. The RDF shows when the antenna ispointing towards the beacon. Radio direction finding is one ofthe oldest electronic navigation systems for aircraft and ships. Itis generally used as a piloting aid along coastal waters. Therange of a radio direction finding signal depends on the type ofradio beacon.

Natalija Jolić, Nada Štrumberger, Ivo Dropulić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
Traffic on rivers and lakes in Europe has been ve1y well developed.The reason for this is the transport cost, relative speedand good connectivity of major European cities by rivers andcanals. In Croatia, this transport mode is lagging behind therest of Europe. Croatia is located at an interesting section of theriver transversal, but due to several reasons, river navigation inCroatia has not been developed to any major extent. As operatingriver ships the most frequent types are: towboats, pushboatsand self-propelled ships. The installed diesel engines, propulsionand auxiliary engines run at high power. Proportional tothe increase in the power of installed engines is also the increasein the volume of waste produced by the engines. Also, the olderthe engine, the greater volume of waste it produces. Ships mayalso cause pollution by wastewaters and garbage. This pollutionthreat grows with the greater number of people on boardand the age of the ship. In order to minimize these possibilitiesof pollution, it is necesswy to control all the time the properfunctioning of the ships, train the staff and construct receptionfacilities on land.

Gregor Veselko, Igor Jakomin
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
The impact of information technologies on transp011 serviceshas been very considerable in the last period. Along thesupply chain there is a variety of different activities going on,from ordering, invoicing, warehousing, shipment, insurance,custom clearance ... A long chain of subjects where each ofthem has an important role.Efficient and effective exchange of infO!mation between allthe involved parties seems to be a great challenge of today. Accomplishingthis will determine the best possible and sustainableposition on the logistics scene.Being successful in this environment today requires big organizationalefforts and financial investment in adequate technology.The basic task of such up-to-date technologies to providefast and reliable information flows between parties involvedin a certain business operation. There is therefore a needfor a good and sound information system.

Planko Rožić, Petar Rožić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 5
Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

Čedomir Ivaković, Sanja Durbek
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
When introduced in 2000 the use of authorized consigneeand consignor status was not particularly popular among companies,despite its apparent advantages. The number of the statususers compared to the total number of exporters and importerswas almost negligible. The aim of this paper was to find outto which extent the simplified customs procedures have beenaccepted in Croatia through an objective outline of advantagesand disadvantages that the companies - users of the simplifiedprocedures face on a daily basis.

Josip Kukec, Tomislav Josip Mlinarić, Mirko Čičak
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
In this work the study focuses on:- determining the elements required to determine the locationfor the installation of the main signals,- calculated block lengths, and- calculations of optimal head ways, that have not been studiedin detail although they deserve special attention due totheir impact.Generally speaking, the signals are installed in compliancewith the local circumstances, i. e. according to the technicaland technological characteristics and conditions determinedby the traffic places of work they protect.The distribution and length of the blocks depend on: therailway line and its exploitation characteristics, structure andtype of trains that run on the railway line, traffic organisationand signalisation system, as well as technical and exploitationcharacte1istics of the traction vehicles and the rolling stock.What has to be considered is that the minimum section lengthcannot be shorter than the length of the braking distance, i. e.the length of the longest train which runs on the respective railwayline.The study of these parameters is supplemented by the calculationof the reduction in throughput capacity depending on thelack of uniformity in the operation of trains, which, in order tomaintain the design quality of the transportation se1vice, and inthe activities of establishing and implementing the business policyshouldn't be left out nor bypassed.

Čedomir Dundović, Svjetlana Hess
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
The functioning of the entire cargo flow process within atransport system lies on the assumption that the operation of allthe factors involved in the transport chain has been analysedwith the aim of bringing them in harmony and obtaining acompetitive price and high quality transportation service.Within the narrow catchment area, the ports of Trieste, Koper,and Rijeka have operated as competitors. All of them gravitateto the same natural hinterland, yet each of them operating onthe market with quite a different approach. In assessing thecompetitiveness of a certain transportation route involving hubports, land communications with the hinterland, and size of thecatchment area, the factors like port charges, inland transportcharges, and time required, are considered essential determinantsfor the selection of an optimum transportation route. Inorder to assess the overall competitiveness of a certain port regardingvarious factors involved (port charges, railway transportcharges, and time required), and comparing it with anotherport competitiveness level, this paper proposes that a collectivecompetitiveness index be introduced. The model isaimed at sorting out the most competitive ports according tocertain sorts of goods on the selected transportation routes.

Mira Bačić, Darko Furač, Vesna Golubović
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
Electronic journals have become an inevitable source ofscientific information. Their advantage, in relation to theprinted journals results from the characteristics of the media:they are available to all the interested users at the same time, beforethan the printed version, and they are not necessarily relatedto the location of the library. Since one of the basic roles oflibrarians in the process of disseminating scientific and professionalinformation is to provide the users with the informationwhich they need and when they need it, the librarians tend to informthe users primarily about the available electronic sources.The objective of this work is to systematize the journals in thefield of transportation sciences through an overview of journalsthat are available to the Croatian academic community in thedatabases of full text articles at the National and University Library,and the libraries of scientific institutions and faculties,which are gathered around the subsystems of the Scientific InformationSystem. In the aggregated databases of EBSCO Publishing,34 journals from the field of transportation scienceswere selected, and in the publisher databases the following wasselected: 8 titles by the publisher Kluwer Academic Publishing,24 titles by the publisher Elsevier Science, 6 titles by SpringerVerlag and 3 titles by the publisher John Wiley & Sons. For theselected full text journals the Impact factor (IF) was used fromthe Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The data on indexing andabstracting rates in the secondary databases for individual journalswere taken from the ULRICH'S database.

Livij Jakomin, Bojan Beškovnik
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
This article presents influence of globalization and containertraffic growth on the development of modem and sophisticatedcontainer tenninals. Due to the fast growing rate of theglobal container trade, every major port is under the pressure ofmeeting the projected capacity demand. An increasing size ofcontainer ships requires improving the port's ground handlingand distribution systems. An increase in the efficiency of thosesystems is mandatory to achieve further reduction of tenninaloperating costs on the one hand and to ensure sufficiently shortlay time for the ships in port on the other.

Martin Bugaj
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
Maintenance organizations assist in ensuring that all aeronauticalproducts built, operated or maintained under controlconform to national and international ailworthiness standards.Ensuring that these standards are met involves a vastnetwork of organizations and personnel in general aviation.Standards and Procedures is responsible for the coordinationand management of all regional maintenance and manufacturingactivities, other than those related to Licensing andTraining. This includes acting as a central coordination andcommunication point for other Civil Aviation.

Jasna Blašković Zavada, Dragan Badanjak, Nikolina Brnjac
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 4
Significant and generally well-known advantages of railwayscompared to other transport branches, considered in theframework of the traffic development of Croatia and the widerenvironment, put an emphasis on the significance of high-qualityrailway connections in the Pan-European VB corridor. In orderto raise the quality of the traffic services on this railwayroute to the level that is required by the contempormy Europeancriteria, it needs to be modemized. This would at the same timecontribute to the integration into the overall European trafficsystem.The paper presents the possibilities of improving the mentionedrailway connecting of the Adriatic coast with other partsof Croatia and Europe. Special significance belongs to theRijeka-Zagreb-Botovo (Hungary) railway line. Significant improvementof the railway traffic in this area would be achievedby constructing a new railway line from Rijeka to Trieste, whichis the logical extension of the Pan-European VB corridor. Theconstruction of a railway line in the Adriatic-Ionian corridoralong the Adriatic coast from Trieste to Dubrovnik and furthertowards the border would contribute to better connecting of allthe regions, cities and ports which it would pass through and itwould have a positive impact on the overall economic developmentof the Republic of Croatia. Regarding the interests and requirementsof the intemational traffic, the Adriatic railway linewould present the shortest way of connecting the North-westEurope with the South of Europe and the Near East. The levelof service quality expected on the new line would contribute togreater attraction of cargo and passengers to the tourist, portand other capacities in Croatia.

Gordana Štefančić, Željko Radačić, Ivan Furlan
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
The historical development of cities and urban transportinevitably implies a conflict between mass transit and the urbanenvironment, regardless of the steps taken to influence (and thedegree of such influence) the ratio of mass transit to privatetranspmtation in cities. In fact, both are to be found among themost important factors reducing the standard of urban living insettlements and cities. The positive effect of transportation inte1ms of its overcoming physical distances is associated withquite a few negative impacts on man and the environment;within this scope the negative effects of passenger cars on the urbanenvironment are higher than those of mass transit.A realistic approach to the urban-transit-to-environmentrelation would involve the identification of its relative parameters,their objective quantification, and the selection of steps toreduce or prevent the occurrence of negative effects.The general transformation of th'e city - environment -transportation relation in Zagreb follows the same pattem. Theassessment of the relation between mass transit in Zagreb andother elements of the urban environment is as negative as therelation of the former to the population (whether it involves pedestrians,transit users or passenger car drivers).The range of possible steps which could improve this stateof affairs in Zagreb covers a span from secular to short-termmeasures. Unfortunately, the relation of transit (one of the elementsof the urban environment) and man does not seem to attractthe interest of the main agents of the city's transpmtationpolicies.

Bojan Beškovnik
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
This article presents the influence of the Chinese economyon the World shipping industry. Changes in international economyand shipping market have pushed shipping industry tochange the market strategy. The Chinese trade growth has cometo a point at which any change of the Chinese demand will havean immediate influence on the shipping market (container, drybulk and tanker). Because of the rising demand of the transportof manufactured goods, cooperation between carriers will befurther developed, in order to satisfy the customer's requirements.In addition, shipping companies must change to globallogistic providers.

Matej Dobovšek, Drago Sever
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
It is very complex to assure the dynamics of traffic networkin urban environment because of the intensity of traffic flowsand the limited space in the urban area. Signalized intersectionsare undoubtedly very important and frequent element inroad traffic network in urban regions, which greatly influencesthe traffic flow dynamics on each section as in the whole trafficnetwork. The time (delay) a vehicle needs to drive through anintersection directly influences the travel comfort, fuel consumption,traffic pollution and so on. There are many methodsfor dimensioning signalized intersections in the world literature.One of the most applied methods is the HIGHWAY CAPACI1YMANUAL (HCM) 2000 which is based on competentinput traffic flows and other characteristics of traffic signalregulations. The intention of this paper is to establish whetherwe can use the HCM 2000 method directly in the Slovenian realenvironment. Based on the established methodology of researchand limited number of delay measurement in real environmentintersections, there have been some deviations. Thecompletion of the level of service criterion for signalized intersectionshas been proposed, with the intention for more suitabilityestimation in the realistic environment.

Nada Štrumberger, Alen Gospočić, Čedomir Bartulić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
Polymeric materials in automobiles have experienced a realboom in the last twenty years, and their application is increasingwith a tendency of further growth. The basic functions ofsuch wide application of polymeric materials in vehicles dictatethe appearance of the automobiles, their functionality, economyand low fuel consumption. The application of polymericmaterials allows more freedom in design, and in many casesonly the polymeric materials can enable safe geometrical oreconomical solutions for the design parts.

Dražen Topolnik, Marko Pušić, Radiš Zuko
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
The experience of major cities in Europe and in the worldhas influenced the dimensioning of the required capacities ofthe transportation means. Based on this knowledge, the criteriafor using individual modes and systems as well as types of transportationmeans were created. The increase in passenger flowsbeyond capacity margins has resulted in the introduction oftransportation means of higher capacities. The decision on thevery choice is made on the basis of an integral analysis of advantagesand drawbacks of individual modes and systems, includingin the decision-making process the current situation inthe traffic in the city with the evaluation of passenger flow valuesin the future. The size of the traffic demands in the City ofZagreb requires higher capacity transportation means, on thestandard rail system gauge, featuring much higher commercialspeed, reliability, comfort, safety in relation to the previoustransportation means. The decision about the mode and thesystem should be made as soon as possible.

Arijana Macura, Dražen Kovačević, Igor Franolić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
In the recent several years there has come to a rapid increasein the multimedia traffic in computer communicationnetworks. New applications of communication networks haveset new, high requirements on the networks, due to the need toprovide the users with high-quality service of multimedia datatransmission. In response to such requirements, numerousmechanisms have been developed and they insure the service ofprioritizing traffic in the communication networks which resultsin the possibility of determining the quality of service necessaryfor individual network applications.

Dražen Kovačević, Hrvoje Haramina, Ervin Greiner
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 3
Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop) technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo). Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network), videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand) and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion) G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology) and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution) Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone), as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

Milan Batista, Tone Magister, Leon Bogdanović
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
Since road accident analyses and reconstructions are increasinglybased on specific computer software for simulationof vehicle d1iving dynamics and collision dynamics, and forsimulation of a set of trial runs from which the model that bestdescribes a real event can be selected, the paper presents anoverview of some computer software and methods available toaccident reconstruction experts. Besides being time-saving,when properly used such computer software can provide moreauthentic and more trustworthy accident reconstruction, thereforepractical experiences while using computer software toolsfor road accident reconstruction obtained in the TransportSafety Laboratory at the Faculty for Maritime Studies andTransport of the University of Ljubljana are presented and discussed.This paper addresses also software technology for extractingmaximum information from the accident photo-documentationto support accident reconstruction based on the simulationsoftware, as well as the field work of reconstruction expertsor police on the road accident scene defined by this technology.

Ivan Bošnjak, Zvonko Kavran, Darko Matijević
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
The design of delivery districts is a continuous task of postaltechnology because migration of population, construction ofbuildings and traffic routes etc. change the quantity and stJuctureof postal items thus significantly influencing the delivery effeet. In solving the problem of designing the delive1y areas ofpublic postal operator the key values are the quantity of postalitems, length of delivery route and load (effect) of the can·ier.Delivery district borders have to be adequately determined andthey should be relatively uniform in order to achieve rationalizationand to balance the load on the can·ier. To gather thedata about the postal centre area, a model of AHP method applicationhas been set, in which the optimal solution of organizingdelive1y areas is selected by means of the multi-criteria analysisof alternative solutions.

Zdravko Bukljaš, Joso Vurdelja, Mario Lovrić
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20) whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

Bojan Rosi
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
In order to ensure a more efficient and successful managementof organisational and business systems a vast amount oftheoretical and practical instructions, techniques, methods, etc.are being offered nowadays. Without the knowledge and the applicationof the science of systems thinking we would not be in aposition to integrate the theory and practise into a single, so-called unintenupted inter-dependant dynamic process. Preciselythese (quotidian) processes give namely rise to complexproblematic situation, which cannot be solved by applying thesimple and in many cases already outdated methods.Therefore, the starting points of our research have beenbased on transcending merely conventional methods of the organisationstudy and we directed our efforts towards the intricacy- complexity1, that is, the one that we detect in theapplicative example of the problematics related to railway activities.In this manner we will for the first time represent somekey findings of several years of investigations (Rosi, 2004) andemergence of a new and original methodology of dialectic networkthinkintf in solving the complex (business) problems orproblematics that arise from them ( = interconnections, systemof problems).

Srećko Favro, Nikola Glamuzina
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
The paper deals with the problems that have arisen due tothe rapid development of nautical tourism on the Croatiancoast. The fact is that Croatia, unlike other Mediten·aneantourist countries still does not control nautical tourism developmentin the sense of spatial planning and implementation ofspecific laws. There are other problems that are generated bythe growing number of tourists in Croatian marinas and unevengeographic distribution of ports.

Ivica Martinić, Ivan Dadić, Ivo Peko
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
Since ancient times human lives pulsed between two poles- moving and stationmy. Moving as element of functioning issupplemented by standing. Today, when modem life in cities isbased on using passenger cars as the dominant means of mobility,the explosion of their number is the generator of the growingproblems both of the moving and of the stationary traffic. Consideringparking as direct product of the moving traffic, usuallyits negative characteristics are mentioned such as greater volumeof parking, fines, legal-regulative and safety aspects, degradationof other swfaces by the parked vehicles, etc. Never oralmostnever does one speak about the origin of the problem, andthis would be the only way to find its solution.

Arijana Macura, Dragan Peraković
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 2
Videoconferencing is the best-known form of teleconferencing.It allows concwrent transmission of images and soundvia computer network for the communication of several personsphysically distant in real time. The computers are networkedand additionally equipped with camera, microphone,voice and video card, and adequate programmes. Video signalsare digitized and compressed before network transmission. Studentsand lecturers may lead discussions and exchange documentsand other malelials via the computer.

Tone Magister
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
The relative speeds of aircraft in possible conflict encounterare soaring up to or even above 0.5km/s, meaning that the periodof time which includes conflict detection, reaction, andstrategical resolution of conflict, etc., before initiation of conflictavoidance maneuvering is short. Therefore, and since currentground based systems for managing, controlling and handlingaircraft movements is near its maximum capacity, the existingground based control has to be enhanced by the autonomousanti-collision and anti-conflict airborne system. Avoidanceprocedures with descent in front of the intruder are demonstratedas a continuation of autonomous airborne separationresearch begun with conflict avoidance involving descentbehind the intruder. The following continuation is necessQ/ybecause descending behind the intruder is a safe avoidanceonly when initial vertical separation exceeds the defined verticalseparation minimum.

Iztok Ostan
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
In order to decipher the organisational behaviour operatingin the transport sector of the economy it is necessary to discoverthe prevalent patterns of social exploitation at work. PreliminaJyresults of a study of experienced irregular traffic studentsshow that, according to them there is no significant differencein Slovenia between exploitation in traffic and other sectors.Thus, general models of exploitation could be used to explainthe behaviour in the traffic sector. Empirical research amongSlovene students showed that according to their statements inthe 90s the managerial and capitalistic types of exploitation prevailedin Slovenia over non-exploitative types of economic behaviour.It also showed that statements of students do not differmuch from those of the general public regarding this question,nor from the statements of irregular students with extensivework experience. It was also found that there were no substantialdifferences between the statements of Italian and Slovenestudents regarding the type of exploitation operative in theircountries. Students of traffic are basically of the same opinionregarding this topic as students in general, though slightly morecritical, especially towards business managers and politicians.

Slavko Roguljić, Stanislav Pavlin, Sanja Steiner
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
Optimisation of business processes represents the basis ofimproving the competitiveness of the Ailport as a service pro·vider. This directly implies not only the analysis and creation ofthe model of current organisation and technological processesbut also the necessity to measure these processes in order to reorganiseand improve them. Consequently, the Split AitportAuthority considers the functional analysis of its business processesas one of the major issues. Since in April2002 the analysisand modelling were completed in all the organisational unitsof handling setvice and cargo department organisational structures,both of the organisational structure of these services, aswell as of processes of aircraft, passenger, baggage and cargohandling, this paper will analyse the implementation of ARISComputer System at Split Airport Ground Handling Process.

Dražen Cvitanić, Deana Breški
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
This paper presents an analysis of the existing traffic signalwarrants and the cmresponding threshold values. The analysisof unsignalized intersections was conducted according to theanalytical procedures of Highway capacity manual. Traffic signaloptimization was conducted using Synchro software. Theresults showed that the cun-ent wan·ants are not sufficiently reliablein some situations and can be misleading in the process ofselecting the intersection control type. There are three majorreasons for insufficient reliability of the existing wan·ants. First,they are p1imarily based on total major and subject minor streetvolumes, so they do not take into account all the possible combinationsof volume distribution and composition of the turningmaneuvers. Second, they do not make difference betweenthree-leg T intersections and four-leg intersections, and finallythey are based only on an overall system operation without regm·ding the functionality of a specific approach.

Stanislav Božičnik, Konrad Schliephake
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
The paper analyses the main technical and economic elementsof the cwrent European rail freight market and presentsthe basic concepts of possible new technologies in the railfreight system. They would enable the railways to enter the morerewarding niches of the freight transport market. In an attemptto understand better the problems of introducing innovationsinto the transport sector this paper also considers the theoreticalframework and analyses the implementation paths of the proposedtechnological innovations. New technologies are confrontedwith various barriers and difficulties created by the existingand dominant technological paradigms. These are oftenpoweiful enough to prevent the introduction of alternatives andpromising innovations. The empirical part of the paper focuseson the possibilities of combining the existing innovative railfreight technologies which could, with the appropriate organizationalsolutions (time-tables) and political support, increasethe competitiveness of the rail freight transport in new andpromising market segments.

Ratko Zelenika, Drago Sever, Sabina Zebec, Bojan Pirš
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
From its theoretical and practical point of view, traffic isone of the fundamental factors of the economy in a state. In thedeveloped European countries, a rational production of transportse1vices is presented by multimodal transport and the correctselection of a logistic operator. The aim of multimodaltransport is to link together different forms of traffic in the mosteffective way, as well as all operations considering transport.The logistic operator is the only professional to pe1Jorm compleleservices in multimodal transport, therefore it wasnecesany to enable its further development and, in accordancewith that, to suggest suitable solutions. An increase of the existingand the creation of new traffic cwTents can only be achievedwith the development of multimodaltransport, the correct selectionof logistic operator and better organisation of the trafficsystem. In the future, the Republic of Slovenia should continuedeveloping multi modal transport in order to decrease the differencesin forms of transport in the developed European countriesin the shortest time possible. The main task of the Republicof Slovenia is to integrate into the European flows as soon aspossible, engage in a reciprocal cooperation by liberalization offlows of commodities and services, and create conditions forthe inflow of foreign capital where all advantages of multimodaltransport come into consideration. The result of the researchis a model of multimodal transport logistic operatorconnecting the basic elements of that transport.

Adolf Malić, Marko Pušić, Milan Gredelj
2005 (Vol 17), Issue 1
Parking issue is one of the major problems in Zagreb, andin relation to that Zagreb does not differ from other similar orbigger European cities. The problem the city is facing is beingpresented in the paper. It is complex and can be solved gradually,using operative and planning measures, by applying influentialparameters assessments based on which the appropriateparking-garage spaces assessment would be selected. Besides,all the knowledge learned from experiences of similar Europeancities should be used in resolving stationary traffic problem.Introduction of fast public urban transport would providepassengers with improved services (particularly in relation tothe travelling time) introducing modern traffic system thatwould reduce the travelling time to below 30 minutes for the farthestrelations. Further improvement in reducing parking problemsin downtown as well as Zagreb broader area would not bepossible without t,nplementing th.s approach.

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