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Zoran Radmilović, Vladislav Maraš, Saša Jovanović
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
The real lock operations with ships and barge convoys areconsidered dependent on the transport technologies applied, ormore precisely, the kinds of ships/convoys requiring thelockage. The fleet can be divided as follows: (1) groups of singleships, (2) pushed and pulled tows of barges and (3) differentcombinations of previous systems (1) and (2). The groups ofships and tows passing through the lock have extremely stochasticcharacteristics thus forming various arrivals and setvicetime patterns. It means that uniform navigation or strongscheduling between locks and lock operations are not possibleeven though highly sophisticated equipment is at disposal.Therefore, in this paper an analytical method was developedusing bulk queuing systems for the analysis and planning oflock requirements supporting it with numerical example. Thedeveloped methodology can be applied to determine the meanqueue length of ships - convoys at lock anchorage, withoutblocking behaviour between upstream and downstream navigationfor single-lane traffic.

Andrija Vidović, Sanja Steiner
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
Current situation of emergency medical assistance indicatesthe need to organize faster and more efficient system oflinking all the parts of the Republic of Croatia. The solutioncan be found in the implementation of aviation as the fastestand therefore the best method of transporting the injured, diseasedand other persons who need urgent transpmt. The use ofmilitary helicopters for the purposes of emergency aviation doesnot satisfy the needs of the Republic of Croatia from the organizationaland legal aspect. There were 597 fatalities on the Croatianroads in 2005 and with the establishment of emergencyhelicopter medical service, the number of fatalities may be reducedby one third.

Anton Ogorelc
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
The author presents the results of the research in five parts,which are interconnected. After the introduction, in part two,entitled A Framework for Logistics Outsourcing Decisions,theoretical characteristics of outsourcing are presented. Partthree, Core Competences and Outsourcing, describes the logisticscompetences. Part 4, Transp011 and Logistics Outsourcingin Europe, discusses the trends in logistics development andoutsourcing. The paper will assist managers responsible for thedevelopment of logistics strategies. The paper offers a uniquebuyer-supplier pwtnership framework by proposing that the logisticsoutsourcing will increase the competitive advantage ofmanufacturing firms.

Tone Magister
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
The paper first illustrates the future civil application opportunitiesfor unmanned aerial vehicles and their unique operationalcapabilities. The expectations of the main stakeholdersare summarized and the main concerns and problem areas ofnon-segregated civil unmanned aerial vehicles flight operationsare identified considering relevant aviation regulatory aspects.The key technologies necessary for a safe unmanned aerial vehiclesoperation are explained. The intention of the paper is tocontribute to finding the optimal approach to the developmentstrategies and safe solution for the integration of today 's and futurecivil unmanned aerial vehicles into the non-segregated airspace.

Damjan Mlakar, Drago Sever
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
This article offers a survey of the cun·ent decentralised formof railway traffic management within the public railway infrastntcturein the The Republic of Slovenia, which is the result ofout-of-date and worn-out safety installations of railway stationsand railway lines. The article presents a new model of railwaytraffic management as the basis for efficient activity andharmonization of railway traffic management in the TheRepublicof Slovenia to the systems of railway traffic managementwithin EU. This article presents the advantages of a centralisedsystem of railway traffic management and demonstrates thatthe application of this system can solve the problem of decentralizedtraffic management as a function of the new infrastrncturemanager.

Nina Perko, Vlaho Đurković, Natalija Jolić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
The technical, traffic and economic parameters of the p011of Dubrovnik, specialized in goods traffic, allow for its reorganizationand conversion into a multi-purpose terminal able toaccommodate cruise ships. The following is required for its successfulconversion: development strategy analysis, financial ratioanalysis and conversion effect analysis. The paper providesthe definition and analysis of the components affecting theidentification of the port of Dubrovnik space requirements withthe aim of defining possible indicators of the port future dimensionswith respect to both, its sea and land area. The pwpose ofthis study is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of theport of Dubrovnik as a passenger port with respect to both thenational liners and international cn1isers. The questions relatedto finding the optimal solutions for the port facilities and servicescan only be resolved by perceiving all the factors impactingthe traffic in the port, no matter whether marine or overlandconnecting the port with the highway and the airport.

Rajko Horvat, Joso Vurdelja, Marko Amidžić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 6
Already in its early phase, starting with initial general needsof people to survive and find food, traffic and traffic se1viceturned into a modern system which increased the complexityand interdependence within the traffic system, and then withthe environment as well. The financing problem is especially expressedduring the creation of new roads and road networksand achieving of better transport service. High investmentmeans required for the road construction require also systemicforecasting of financial sources. Financing of road infrastructureconstruction opens up the basic dilemma: whether totransfer the costs directly to the state budget and the cun·entgeneration or to transfer this burden to the future generations.These considerations require also a certain organizational approach.High investments in road infrastructure require a rationalselection before the decision itself on the selection of thetraffic system. Such selection has to be done based on adequatetraffic plans, which assumes classification of all the needs regardingtheir level so that every investment would be rationallyallocated.

Danko Kezić, Igor Vujović, Anita Gudelj
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
Modern port terminals are equipped with various localtransport systems, which have the main task to transport cargobetween local storehouses and transport resources (ships,trains, trucks) in the fastest and most efficient way, and at thelowest possible cost. These local transport systems consist offully automated transport units (AGV- automatic guided vehicle)which are controlled by the computer system. The portcomputer system controls the fully automated transport units inthe way to avoid possible deadlocks and collisions betweenthem. However, beside the fully automated local transportunits, there are human operated transport units (fork-lifttrucks, cranes etc.) which cross the path oftheAGVfrom timeto time. The collision of human operated transp011 unit andA GV is possible due to human inattention. To solve this problem,it is necesswy to design a supe1vismy control system thatcoordinates and controls both human driven transport unit andA G V In other words, the human-machine interactions need tobe supen·ised. The supen•ising system can be realized in the waythat the port terminal is divided into zones. Vehicle movementsare supen•ised by a video system which detects the moving ofparticular l'ehicles as a discrete event. Based on detected events,dangerous moving of certain vehicles is blocked by the supe1visi11gsystem. The paper considers the design of collision preventionsupen•isor by using discrete event dynamic themy. The portterminal is modeled by using ordi1za1y Petri nets. The design ofcollision prevention supe1visor is cmTied out by using the P-inl'ariantmethod. The verification of the supervisor is done bycomputer simulation.

Ratko Zelenika, Slavomir Vukmirović, Hilmija Mujić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by usingthe integral, rather than the partial method.

Anđelko Ščukanec, Kristijan Rogić, Darko Babić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
The system which connects all the elements between theproducer and the consumer is called the supply chain. This definitionof the supply chain shows its complexity, dynamics anduncertainty. Successful operation of supply chains requires thebest possible coordination of its elements, which obviously indicatesthe utmost importance of the information flow alongthem. The operation of supply chains on the whole has to bemore successful than the operation of their individual elements.It should be noted that such a complex process may give rise toa series of problems, unwanted events, as well as substantial reductionin profits and the level of service. One of such unwantedphenomena which may occur in the supply chain is the'bullwhip effect'. This is a possible increase in the diversity oforders which occurs when we move along the elements of thesupply chain (from the customers' orders to the producers' orders).The work analyses the processes within the supply chainsand the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The main causes ofthe bullwhip effect that we encounter daily in the supply chainshave been clearly defined. The paper also presents the mainnegative consequences of such a disturbance within the supplychains, and provides possible solutions for avoiding the bullwhipeffect.

Josip Kasum, Zvonko Gržetić, Eli Marušić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
It is assumed that in strategic decision-making in managingnautical tourism p01ts (NTP) various decisions are made onthe basis of desc1iptions, calculations, statistic, economic andother indicators, and also of inadequate number of precise indicators(Branch, A. E., 1998). Therefore, strategic decision-making is slightly uncertain, which, it is assumed, may bemodified. This article explores the new measuring elements.They are developed on the sample of 47 NTPs in the archipelagicsea of the Republic of Croatia. It is assumed that by applyingthe new measuring elements it will consequently result inlowering the unreliability of strategic managing, which willeventually increase the profit of NTP.

Jasna Jurum-Kipke, Branko Maković, Davor Sumpor
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
According to the crite1ia of reliability, cost-efficiency andenvironmental fiiendliness the traffic on inland waterways inthe Republic of Croatia has not been fully used. The study analyzesthe current condition of vessels on inland waterways in theRepublic of Croatia. Also, statistical method and methods ofanalysis and comparison were used to research the current andpre-war condition from the aspect of type and number of vessels,and their capacity and engine power. The trend of the developmentof vessels in the Republic of Croatia has been comparedin relation to the European countries with developed inlandnavigation. The cun·ent trend in the Republic of Croatia isthe stagnation of the number of self-propelled vessels, and thereduction in the number of vessels intended for the transport ofgoods, then the reduction of total capacity and the enginepower of all the vessels, as well as changes in the relation betweenthe pushing and towing technologies in favour of thepushing technologies, in compliance with the trends in theworld. The methods of compilation and comparison were usedto research the preconditions of improving the condition of vessels,in compliance with the status and development in thecountries of the Danube COITidor VII.

Darja Topolšek
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
Traffic accidents that occur on freeways often end tragicallybecause of high driving speed. Wrong-way driving is also one ofthe causes of accidents on freeways. Research is based on theanalysis of traffic accident data caused by wrong-way drivingon freeways, and considering valid technical specifications forconnections and junctions design elements. Research is basedon the analysis of the data of traffic accidents that occurred becauseof wrong-way driving on freeways and on the considerationof valid technical specifications concerning connectionsand junction design elements. The thesis presents possiblecountermeasures for prevention of wrong-way driving and consequentialdecrease in the number of traffic accidents. The proposedprevention countermeasures of wrong-way driving onfreeways could greatly reduce incorrect traffic vehicle movementsthat are the consequence of wrong-way driving and thuspositively enhance the traffic safety level on freeways.

Sinan Alispahić, Željko Antunović, Erkrem Bećirović
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
The problem of the participation of young drivers in trafficaccidents is constantly present and represents a significant socialproblem. In complex and dynamic conditions of moderntraffic flows, the young drivers are exposed to various and unforeseenhazard situations and events which they had not experiencedduring the basic training. Therefore, they should be providedwith the possibility of acquiring additional experiences insolving typical hazard situations in traffic. This is possible bythe system of advanced training which places the course participantin the situation of facing possible hazards, with the aim ofincreasing the awareness of risk in driving and behaviour at thesteering wheel. Advanced driver training is based on the specificprogram and training the drivers to acquire additional experiencesin solving dangerous traffic situations.

Danijela Barić, Danko Čurepić, Željko Radačić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 5
The assessment of investment traffic-technological projectsmeans a set of activities whose basic aim is to determine the justificationand feasibility of the projects. The decision-makingprocess, including the decision-making on investments is an extremelycomplex process, and the decision-maker has to have avision of the future and make decisions accordingly in a modemand flexible manner. Therefore, the decisions need to be theresult of a planning and research process based on relevant scientificmethods. The work includes the selected, analysed andpresented methods of cost-benefit analysis, methods of multi-criteria decision-making and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses,Opportunities, and Threats) analysis methods. Regarding thebasic characteristics, the mentioned methods have been compared,the order of their implementation has been determined,and then they have been implemented in assessing the traffic-technological projects of reconstmction with the aim of selectingthe optimal variant solution.

Dejan Paliska, Jurij Kolenc
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
This paper discusses the effect of unscheduled stops requestedby passengers on bus transit demand and presents theresults of its study. In the research a set of regression modelsthat estimate the route-level demand were developed using datacollected with Automatic Passenger Counters and AutomaticVehicle Location systems installed on buses, and demographic,socio-economic and land use information from other sources.The results obtained indicate that the number of rider-requestedunscheduled stops have no significant effect on demand,suggesting that the company policy which tolerates unscheduledstops is inadequate for attracting new riders.

Oktavian Stradal
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The paper deals with utilization of fuzzy logic for simulationmodel parameter, which is changed during simulation experiment.Additive fuzzy system is used for approximation ofcontinuous functions, whereas the relevant membership functionsare based on ellipsoidal rules. Application of that methodologyis demonstrated on the parameter adaptation relatedto simulation model of an asynchronous machine. The mentionedadaptation depends on the changing magnetic properties.

Veselko Protega, Nikica Božić, Zlatko Lučić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The work studies the impact of the changed traffic flows(moto1way Al) on the development of the tourist economy ofthe Sibenik-Knin County. The selected three-year period (2003- 2005) includes three phases of different construction levels ofthe motorwayAl Zagreb- Split in the area of the Sibenik-KninCounty. This raises the issue of the cause-effect relation ofbetter traffic connections and the improvement of tourism aswell as the compatibility of the new road network with the tendenciesof reconstructing the tourist offer with special referenceto unbalanced development of different destinations.

Robert Spudić, Božidar Ivanković, Vlado Kovačević
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The use of advanced transport means understands alsotheir supply by spare and consumable parts. In order to solvethe problem of the required quantities, costs of purchase andstorage of the parts, it is necessary to solve the problem of stocksmanagement. The wear of tyres for military vehicles in extremeexploitation conditions is of random character. How fast thetyres will wear on the all-ten·ain and heavy motor vehicle dependson the driver's skill and the external conditions (weather,terrain). All the conditions are of random character and in orderto determine as accurately as possible the wear of tyres it isnecessary to monitor the wear of tyres within a certain time period,and to find the approximate probability of tyre wear in thefuture period of time. When the probability of tyre wear is determined,stochastic supply management model is used to calculatethe value of the stocks which allows optimal planning ofstocks of spare parts at minimal costs. The stochastic model allowsoptimal calculation for the purchase of consumable partsof transport means whose consumption depends on the randomconditions and events.

Stanislav Pavlin, Marko Rapan, Igor Štimac
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
General aviation, which in practice includes small aircraftin non-commercial traffic, in the City of Zagreb uses two aerodromes,Pleso and Lucko. Zagreb Airport at the Pleso locationis primarily intended for the handling of commercial aircraft,but provides also services to small aircraft in commercial andnon-commercial flying. The airfield Lucko is a sport and trainingaerodrome which accommodates operations of sport andrecreation flying, pilot training, activities of parachutists, glidersand flying-model constructors. Lucko Airfield is open to trafficabout half a year and it does not satisfy the non-commercialgeneral aviation requirements. The work presents the possibilitiesof developing the capacities for the needs of general aviationin the City of Zagreb.

Boris Aržek, Drago Pupavac
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The existing network for liquefied gas in the Republic ofCroatia is characterized by numerous weaknesses, led by lackof investment into LPG branch that has been going on foryears, i. e. outdated equipment and apparatuses, insufficientstorage space, outdated vehicles. The existing LPG logisticsnetwork has the following drawbacks: LPG market withoutcompetition, outdated legislative that imposes restrictions onimporters, lack of marketing know-how, insufficient investmentsfunding ( .. ). Since foreign investors have been showingincreased interest in entering the Croatian LPG market, itseemed appropriate to investigate and elaborate decisive factorsand effects of constructing a new competitive logistics networkin conditions of imperfect competition.

Čedomir Dundović, Mirjana Kovačić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The paper presents a systematic and comprehensive analysisof both the technological justification for the constructionof a container/multi-purpose terminal and a dry bulk terminal,and the efficiency of loading/unloading facilities. The organisationof Croatian ports is inefficient and the technology usedin outdated. Traffic links with the mainland, the continent andthe world are unsatisfactory, with traffic infrastructure impactingadversely on operational efficiency. Analysis results of thepresent condition of port traffic and the influence of traffic onport operations and development indicate that the Port ofPlace lacks a multi-purpose terminal that would enable modemcontainer traffic. Because of the inefficient cargo-handlingprocedure and manner of storing bulk cargo in the Port ofPlace, it is necessary to plan the construction of a coal andiron ore terminal taking into account spatia~ technological,economic and ecological development factors. The authorsalso examine the importance of regional initiatives spurringthe development of Croatia and, in particular, the port systemas part of the EU's Pan-European transport corridor V BranchC. Research results are presented by a traffic and technologicaldesign for a container/multi-purpose terminal and dry bulkterminal capable of providing an appropriate level of servicefor all terminal users.

Gordana Štefančić, Ninoslav Nogić, Drago Bago
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 4
The solving of complex problems in public transport requiresthe usage of models that are based on the estimate of demandin planning the transport routes. The intention is to predictwhat is going to happen in the future, if the proposed solutionsare implemented. In the majority of cases, the publictransport system is formed as a network and stored in the computermemory in order to start the evaluation process by specifYingthe number of trip origins and destinations in each zone.The trip distribution model which is used to calculate the numberof trips between each pair in the zone is based on the overalltravel frictions from zone to zone.

Tanja Poletan Jugović, Alen Jugović, Ratko Zelenika
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
Logistics forwarder, as organizer and planner of coordinationand integration of all the transport and logistics chains elements,uses adequate ways and methods in the process of planningand decision-making. One of these methods, analysed inthis paper, which could be used in optimisation of transportand logistics processes and activities of logistics forwarder, isthe multicriteria optimisation method. Using that method, inthis paper is suggested model of multicriteria optimisation of logisticsforwarder activities. The suggested model of optimisationis justified in keeping with method principles of multicriteriaoptimization, which is included in operation researchmethods and it represents the process of multicriteria optimizationof variants. Among many different processes of multicriteriaoptimization, PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking OrganizationMethod for Enrichment Evaluations) and Promcalc& Gaia V. 3.2., computer program of multicriteria programming,which is based on the mentioned process, were used.

Sanja Barešić, Željko Radačić, Ružica Škurla Babić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
Global air traffic has been recording a growing passengernumber accompanied by the growth of lost and mishandledbaggage on final destinations. Airlines are facing cost-risingconsequences that lead to additional problems in global lATAtrends to simplify the business and cost reduction policy in theIndustry. The World Tracer program, developed for mishandledbaggage, based on simplicity and optimal costs has done alot to improve baggage tracing. Supported by SITA and lATA,the program has been created to meet the needs of airlines andground handling partners. The Program team leaders a re workingon improving the tracing procedure to catch up with thegrowing mishandled baggage problem. The paper examines theissues related to lost, delayed or pilfered baggage worldwide andespecially at Zagreb Ai1port. Zagreb Airport is the World TraceManagement subscriber with its Lost and Found office as aProgram user. The annual office statistics clearly point to therise of mishandled and lost baggage, thus being well suited forthe global problem of the growth.

Eva Birnerova
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
The paper deals with customer satisfaction with regards tomass urban traffic enterprises. The paper stresses the importanceand tasks of the research, preparatory stage of the researchis explained, special attention is devoted to the questionnaireconstruction. The paper describes realisation of the research,infom1ing about research methods, contact methods,respondents sample and research tools that were used. Researchresults are presented in tables providing inf01mation onconsumer priorities and enterprises peiformance evaluation.The CS! methodology and stipulation is also described here.

Dragan Peraković, Vladimir Remenar, Zdravko Šašek
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
Since the Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences wasconnected to CARNet academic network, new informationand communication technologies are constantly being introducedand the old ones updated with the aim of improving thequality of studying, from the introduction of WEBCT applicationto complete design, development and implementation ofone's own solution of e-leaming. A complete e-Learning systemhas been developed, named e-Student which consists of severalprogram modules called SAN, DMS, SMSCentar, etc. Sincethe introduction of the system, the students and the teachingstaff have shown great interest for the system for the reasons ofeasier monitoring of the students' activities, through seminarpapers and tasks, exercises and throug h solving of variousknowledge tests. The work provides graphical illustrations andstatistical data which analyze the operation of the system andthe exploitation characteristics. The obtained results indicatethe increase in the interest of the teaching staff and studentswhich indicates further need to upgrade the system in order toincrease the safety and speed of information transfer.

Velimir Kolar, Denis Magličić, Dražen Kaužljar
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
The increasing globalization has spread the production locationsto every part of the world thus increasing even more therole of transport in determining the price and quality of a product.Therefore, the producers and carriers join together moreand more frequently through the supply chains. Railway carriershave a very significant role in supply chains, both throughorganization of transport and forming the trains as final products,and through forming the logistic centres. Logistic centresare the starting and the final railway stations but also the meetingpoints of the national carrier with other carriers (sea, road,river as well as other railway carriers) and they also represent informationcentres. For the quality of service at logistic centres, itis important to have well organized operation of train traction.In order to keep up the regulmity of trains and the quality oftransport at logistic centres, among other things, it is necessaryto provide an optimal number of locomotives and to providethe technical inspection place. Special attention should be paidto the organization of work peiformed by the engine staff At logisticcentres it is possible to organize high-quality technical inspectionof wagons thus increasing the traffic safety.

Borivoj Galović, Željko Marušić, Omer Pita
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
The importance of the 'golden hour'; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMS)to meet the 'golden hour' requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services). It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union) traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

Petar Obradović, Leon Flatz, Perica Ljubičić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
The communications requirements in air traffic control areincreasing in complexity. From the middle 90s, huge progress inairport infrastructure, especially in air traffic control systems,has been made in Bosnia and Herzegovina in damage rehabilitation,caused by war conflicts, owing, first of all, to the EuropeanUnion aid that contributed to the re-establishment of regularinternational air traffic. The current air traffic control systemhas matured in its functionality. Therefore, the phase of advancementand preparation for the technological improvementis the next logical step. However, before establishing a new communicationsstrategy, the current application trends have to beanalyzed in details according to the existing communicationsenvironment interfaces. The goal of this work is to find theguidelines of technological development that will result in moreefficiency, safety and economic benefit in the near future, butthe air traffic safety must not be compromised by economicbenefit.

Vinko Višnjić, Marko Pušić, Ivan Žižić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 3
Rationalization of the traffic systems in major cities, whichincludes Split, is possible at present only by providing a more diverseand higher quality supply of public urban transport.In Split the situation in public urban transport shows that itdoes not meet its basic function. Only partial or transitional solutionsare offered. All this contributes to the delay in makingthe decision which is the only possible one in the city of Split regardingits size and the level of motorization.The solution of the public urban transport lies in the introductionof the metro system through phase construction. Eachphase represents in fact the construction of one line. Due to thecomplexity of the construction of the underground section (tunnelconstntction in the centre of the City) the first phase is themost demanding one regarding construction works, with twometro lines intersecting (the need to build two-level stations)and therefore this section is the most complex and the most expensivepart in the network of the metro line system.

Mirano Hess, Serđo Kos, Svjetlana Hess
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
The paper demonstrates the application of the queuing theOIYin modelling the port's bulk cargo unloading terminal. Abulk cargo terminal can be obsetved as a queuing system definedby basic parameters: the rate of bulk cargo ship arrivals orquantity of bulk cargo and the rate of ship servicing i. e. quantityof bulk cwgo, in an observed time unit. Appropriate indices ofbulk cmgo terminal operations are computed on the basis ofthese parameters. The unloading terminal is detennined as aqueuing system marked with MIMI I by Kendall notation. Thesystem is characterized by Poisson distribution of entity arrivalsand exponentially distributed service time. Subsequently, themodel set up will be tested on the real example of the unloadingterminal of the bulk cmgo port in Bakar. Through applicationof the proposed model it should be possible to make a decisionon how to optimize the transhipment processes on the bulk dischmgingtemzinal to increase its efficiency. The obtained parametersand the calculated indices point to solid capacity employmentrate in 2005 and the probability that the berth is unoccupiedis relatively low. Indices show that the tenninaltrafficrate has dramatically improved taking into consideration theprevious years.

Dražen Cvitanić, Deana Breški, Boris Vidak
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
This paper deals with problems related to the capacity anddelay models at unsignalized intersections. The parameters ofvarious models are calibrated based on the on-site data obtainedin the countries where the models were developed. Thispaper deals with two problems: The first is the reliability of appliedmethodology in general, and the second is the acceptabilityof model parameters for the use in prevailing road and trafficconditions in Croatia.The first section presents the background review of the gapacceptance theory which is the basis for the development of thecapacity and delay models. The mathematical derivation of thebasic capacity models is presented as well as the resulting capacitymodels according to the assumed theoretical distributionof head ways in the priority stream. This paper also presents themethods for the calculation of the capacity considering the existenceof traffic streams of different hierarchies. The results ofvmious theoretical capacity models testing are presented. Thesecond section presents a review of queuing theory and the resultingstationary and time-dependent delay models. The underlyinghypothesis as well as reliability and limitations of thedelay models are presented. Also, the Highway capacity manualdelay model was tested against field data.

Dubravka Hozjan, Jasna Blašković-Zavada, Luka Novačko
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
Passages in the central resetVes of mot01ways are intendedfor redirection of traffic during planned special maintenance ofmotorways and in accident situations, as well as for the requirementsof emergency vehicles (ambulance, fire-brigade, police).The observed problems in deficient legal regulations of thedesign and length of the passages are reflected on the existingcondition of the passages in the central resetVe on the Croatianmotorways. Our practice shows diverse solutions, especially regardingthe lengths of the passages.Considering the issue of the passages in the motorway centralresetVes in a certain number of the European Union countriesone can notice various design solutions contained in thenational standards. Having in mind the purpose of the passagesunder the condition of safe flow of traffic, the required passagedimensions have been studied regarding their position on themotorway. The study resulted in two design type solutions.As result of the perfonned study and the obsetVation of thenational and foreign practice, recommendations are given forthe design solution of the passage in the central rese1ve on theCroatian motorways.

Jasna Jurum-Kipke, Morana Ivaković, Jasmina Zelenković
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
The experience of our environment is based on the informationthat reach us by means of our sensory organs, andwhich are subsequently processed in our brains. Digital interpretationimplemented to mathematical models of the studiedsubjects brings us to the so-called virtual reality that allows us toreplace some natural human senses, in this case the visualones, by computer-generated infonnation. The procedure is expandedto three-dimensional (3D) scanning i. e. searching ofthe special form of the obse1ved subject/object, then digital recordingof the space point cloud (pixels) which correspond tothe item, then vectorisation of the fonn, rendering and finallyanimation. In this way, by watching the display, the impressionof the virtual environment can be generated in the human perception.Moreover, in this way the human model can be realizedin a characteristic way in such a virtual space. The implementationof this virtual reality, in accordance with the possibilitiesthat it provides, has been the subject of very intensive researchin the world, and in Croatia as well. The work presentssome possibilities of applying virtual reality in the field of ergonomicanalysis of the collision process of two vehicles.

Mihaela Bukljaš, Natalija Jolić, Ante Jolić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
Quite a number of scientific and technical papers havebeen written about the elements and the factors of the portsystem operation in the developed maritime countries. Thestudy of a port system may be based on the research of thetraffic, commercial and industrial role separately, or in an integratedapproach of the technical, technological, organisational,economic, ecological and legal elements. The drawbacksof both approaches come to the fore if one studies thecompetitiveness of the port system as the end goal of the portfunctioning which also determines the operation of the portsystem subjects. A comprehensive study of the competitivenessof the Croatian port system must combine the study and researchof the possibilities of sh011 sea shipping integration inthe European maritime countries, especially regarding theCroatian integration into the European Union. From the Croatianaspect, the term as accepted by the Ministry of the Sea,Tourism, Transportation and Development, 'meduobalnoprometno povezivanje' (English: short sea shipping) has multiplemeaning, and this is primarily the traffic connection ofthe Croatian and Italian coasts, redirection of a part of cargotransported from the European Union to the countries of theSouth-eastern Balkan, via Croatia, reduction of harmfulemissions in traffic and increase of traffic in domestic ports.'Meduobalna plovidba' (Eng. intercoastal navigation) refersto the movement of goods and passengers by sea between theports located in Europe or between these ports and those outsideEurope having the sea border with Europe. The goal ofintroducing short sea shipping is to alleviate the burden on theEuropean road routes and to redirect the transport of part ofthe cmgo and passengers to sea transport; and furthermore,the improvement of the traffic connections between Croatiaand the European Union and connecting of the Danube andthe Adriatic.

Sabina Zebec, Ratko Zelenika, Slobodan Zečević
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
The age of knowledge has come and the enterprises presentthemselves as »knowledge ente1prises<< and their employees assources of knowledge - »knowledge workers«. Knowledge hasbecome a merchandise, to be on the knowledge market. In anenterprise knowledge becomes the capital, important forachieving competitive advantage on the market but it cannot bemeasured easily. The field of intellectual capital is ve1y complex,mostly because it is difficult to categorize it. The importantconcepts and definitions for intellectual capital include an emphasisthat intellectual capital is based on knowledge and is usablein any enterprise. Knowledge and skills determine the possibilitiesof an individual to actively influence the social developmentand ensure their quality of life.

Evelin Vatovec Krmac
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
With the growing trend toward the use of intema tiona/ supplychains and e-commerce, logistics service providers for productwarehousing, transportation and delivery are placinggreater emphasis on infomwtion communication technologies(ICT) in order to remain competitive globally. In the last decades,innovative ICT have deeply affected the way business ispeJformed and the way that organizations compete. Innovationsin electronic commerce play a key role in managinginter-organizational networks of supply chain members. Theintemet represents a powerful technology for commerce andcommunication between supply chain participants as well as atechnique for the improvement of supply chain management.But there are still some barriers that prevent the use of ICT insupply chains and consequently the ability to utilize all potentialICT advantages.

Alica Kalašova, Libor Palička
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
The article describes new possibilities of how to use globalsatellite navigation system Galileo, which is made by the EuropeanUnion and its European Space Agency ESA. Comparedto original army systems GPS and Glonass, Galileo is built tobe used for civil applications. Galileo is built up in order to becompatible with cun·ent systems. This fact creates the assumptionfor the interactive back-up, the enhancement of visible satellitesnumber and of required navigation performance demandedin transport and other applications, where extremeprecision, integrity, availability and connection are claimed.Galileo offers various kinds of services - from open servicethrough safety of life service, commercial service, public regulatedservice to the search and rescue service. These services willcover all sections of human activities, mainly the transport, inwhich the greatest expansion is expected in the area of automobiletransport

Drago Spajić, Krešimir Šapina
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 2
The work presents the AMQM (Automatic Mail QualityMeasurement) system for measuring the quality of postal services.The system has been developed at the request of UPUtheworld postal union. AMQM represents an advanced managerialtools whose main task is to obtain objective data on thequality of providing postal services. Based on the obtained datafrom the AMQM system, the activities may be planned whichare necessary for quality improvement of postal services.

Milan Batista, Goran Zovak
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
In the paper two-car collinear collisions are discussed usingNewton's law of mechanics, conservation of energy and linearconstitutive law connecting impact force and crush. Two waysof calculating the mutual restitution coefficient are given: onebased on car masses and one based on car stiffness. A numericalexample of an actual test is provided.

Drago Pupavac, Jasmin Pašagić Škrinjar, Ratko Zelenika
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
Production and stock optimization in supply chains representsextremely complex problem, because it determines the optimumquantity production in time. Due to their multilevelednature, those problems are mostly solved by application of differentmethods and models of dynamic programming. Theproblem addressed in this scientific debate refers to determinationof optimum quantity of production and stocks within thesupply chain in a certain period of time, as well as in eachsub-interval of the said period, but with the condition that theproduction and stock expenditure remains minimal and thatthe predetermined demand in every sub-interval and throughoutthe entire observation period remains satisfied.

Ivan Mišetić, Sanja Steiner, Mirko Tatalović
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
The paper addresses several marketing related notions associatedwith airline strategic planning and positioning. Besideexamining the distinctions between network operator and nicheplayer, this paper treats the state of Croatia Airlines within thereported AEA benchmarking of the specific elements of airlinebusiness. It also studies certain aspects of the air market that influencepricing and demand elasticity, such as the impact oflow cost carriers and the practice of network hubbing.

Dražen Kovačević, Branko Maković, Davor Sumpor
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
The work presents the classification of engines for theECO test requirement at the technical inspection of vehicles.The types of harmful components in the raw emission of internalcombustion engine are listed and described, as well asthe possibilities of their reduction. In accordance with theclassification of engines for the ECO test requirements the allowedvalues of harmful components according to the legallystipulated standards in Croatia are given. The study includedthe number of vehicles that passed the ECO test at technicalinspection in 2004 and these were then statistically processedand analyzed according to the type of vehicle, classification ofcar engines for the ECO test requirements and the year ofproduction.

Milojka Počuča
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
The article gives a presentation of the port system of theRepublicof Slovenia and of the organizational, ownership andmanagerial structure of Slovenia's only cargo port in Koper.The analysis of the organizational, ownership and managerialstructure was carried out according to the methodology appliedin the European project entitled 'Commission Staff WorkingProject on Public Financing and Charging Practices in theCommunity Sea Port Sector'. The article performs a compara·tive analysis of the port of Koper with other ports of the EU inthe domain of organization, ownership and management, publicfinancing, accountancy monitoring of public money investedin the port infrastructure, principles of cost recovery ofinvested capital and possibilities of access of port operators tothe port infrastructure of the Slovenian cargo port. The articlepoints to the possibilities of ownership and managementchanges in the port of Koper.

Anđelko Ščukanec, Mario Šafran, Darko Babić
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
During driving one of the basic tasks of the driver is to followthe traffic route in such a way as not to endanger in the processother traffic participants. In order to improve the drivingsafety, the manufacturers install new safety systems in the cars.Thus, the safety system !LAS (Involuntary Lane-crossing AlertSystem) warns the drivers of the unintended and incorrectcrossing of the full or broken line during driving. The properfunctioning of !LAS requires high quality road markings on thecarriageway in order to allow the mentioned safety system toidentify them on time and correctly. Road markings can be definedas a set of longitudinal and transversal lines, signs andsymbols, the combination of which designs the surfaces on thetraffic infrastructure. They represent a part of the whole trafficsignalization and cannot be replaced by other markings or regulations.The road markings have the task of visually guiding thedriver, allowing the drivers to be able to forecast the route oftheir safe movement. Every crossing of the full or broken line atspeeds higher than 80 km/h and without an activated indicatoris identified by !LAS and the driver is warned by the vibration ofthe driver seat. Road markings are the best aid in side, i. e.transversal locating of the vehicle and they influence directly theoperation of the safety system !LAS during driving.

Jasna Blašković Zavada, Josip Zavada, Dubravka Hozjan
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
As a traffic system, railway is experiencing possibly the biggestorganizational and systemic changes ever, in its long existence.It has always been under the patronage of the state. It hashad privileged position on the transport market, and its losseswere covered by the state. In comparing the railways as a publictransport system and other transport systems, especially theroad system, railways features significant innate advantageswhich should be used by stimulating traffic policy. This paperstudies the future development of the railway from the transportaspect in the new conditions of the transport market, marketliberalization on railway lines and the privatization process ofthe railway as transport service provider. It presents the basiccharacteristics of the railway which emphasise its advantagesand drawbacks compared to other traffic systems. The characteristicsof the transport market are presented, and the positionof the railway in the given circumstances is analysed. The paperalso analyses the political relation of the governments of somecountries and EU towards traffic and favouring of individualsystems.

Stanislav Pavlin, Igor Dimnik, Martin Starčević
2007 (Vol 19), Issue 1
The European low-cost carriers share in passenger traffic isgetting higher each year. Their business model benefits frommany aspects. Still, one of the most important aspects is usageof secondary airports. Those airports are mainly regional incharacter with relatively low passenger figures. With arrival oflow cost carriers, traffic volume has greatly increased whichbrings additional load on airport infrastructure. Because of thisextra load, additional planning of future development as well asextension of movement surfaces, primarily apron area, and terminalareas is necessary.Several/ow-cost carriers currently operate to Croatian airports,and with forthcoming regulation liberalization theirnumber is expected to grow. The paper presents the increase inpassenger traffic at European and Croatian airports generatedby low-cost carriers, and its influence on development of airportinfrastructure.

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