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Milan Batista
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
This paper discusses a simple theoretical throw model forfrontal vehicle-pedestrian collisions. The model is based on thesimple assumption that pedestrian movement after impact canbe approximated by the movement of a mass point. Two methodsof vehicle-pedestrian collision reconstruction are discussed:one knowing only the throw distance and the otherwhen also impact to ground contact distance is known. Themodel is verified by field data available in the literature and bycomportment with full scale numerical simulation.

Igor Jakomin, Valerija Pučko
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
Due to today's globalization and driven needs of the competitivefreight transport, as a result of the opening of new markets,the necessity for the introduction of a completely new service,such as a special container train from Koper to Gdynia,may arise unexpectedly. The adaptability of the railway operatorsto the needs of the customer, i. e. the user of the transportservice, must be available. The core of the problem of the introductionof such a new service lies mainly in the confrontationbetween the needs and requirements of the users of the transportationservices and their capabilities.

Ratko Zelenika, Darko Bečaj, Helga Pavlić Skender
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
The environmental disburdening by means of outsourcinglogistics (sorting, bundling, transport) is today significantlymore present, since this has been regulated by the law provisionson environmental protection and the economic reasons.Outsourcing logistics in this field with its activities such as: improvementin assembling separate fraction, introduction ofnew, i. e. additional boxes, usage of specific vehicles for collectionand dispatch, reestablishment of information systems andorganization of a centre for disburdening of the environment(sorting, bundling and waste disposal) is contributing largely toa better accomplishment of the mission of logistics rationalizationand adaptation to new law claims on environmental protection.KEYWORDS

Čedomir Ivaković, Kristijan Rogić, Adrijana Orlić Protega
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
On 17 January 2006, the European Commission acceptedthe Action Programme NAIADES for the promotion of navigationon the inland waterways on the European Union territoryfor the period 2006 - 2013. The programme has been harmonizedwith the White Paper guidelines - the 'European trafficpolicy for 2010: time for decision', and recommends joining ofthe countries who are currently not the EU members, which includesCroatia.111e NAIADES action programme is based on five strategic,interdependent areas: market - improvement of market conditions;fleet -fleet modernization; personnel policy - developmentof human resources; image - creation of a better imageand infrastructure- realization of infrastructure preconditions.This paper analyses the basic hypotheses of the NAIADESaction programme in order to shed light on the possible implementationof its guidelines regarding the development and promotionof traffic on the Croatian inland waterways.

Goran Vojković
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
According to the 1998 Act on Inland Ports, the right to performall port activities within inland ports of the Republic ofCroatia is given on the basis of concession, obtained throughbidding. It has been noticed in practice that modem businessprocesses and traffic flows are more dynamic than before whenclassic concession relations were created. Also, types andamounts of cargo are changing every couple of years, which isfollowed by quick adjustments, instead of working according torigid and long-term defined decisions and concession contracts.Furthermore, the practice has shown for some activitiesthat the number of port providers (such as ship suppliers,port-agency and freight forwarders) should not be limited. Thismeans that the system of a limited number of port providers isimportant only for the activities that require location within aport, as the port area is physically limited. Therefore, the newAct on Navigation and Inland Ports from 2007, whose framehas been completed by sub-law acts during 2008, has replacedthe complex concession system for performing activities in inlandports by a more liberal approval system. On the basis ofthese, higher dynamics of work of port providers is enabled aswell as easier adjustment to market conditions. Furthermore,the main limitation factor that determines the number of portusers becomes the available physical space within a port, whichprovides undisturbed competition, along with larger offer ofport services that do not require that space. It is also importantto point out that the new Act specifically includes distributionand cargo logistics, also processing and improvement of goodsas well as industrial activities including production that enablecomplete economic utilization of port capacities into the existingport activities, thus significantly changing the role of the portitself as a logistic centre.

Martina Valaskova, Anna Križanova
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS) in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

Ivan Grgurević, Adam Stančić, Pero Škorput
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
The paper presents the possibilities of insuring the credibilityand authenticity of the surveillance camera video by digitalsigning, using the public key infrastructure as part of interoperabletraffic and information system in the future intelligenttransport systems. The surveillance camera video is a sequenceof individual frames and a unique digital print, i. e. hash valueis calculated for each of these. By encryption of the hash valuesof the frames using private encryption key of the surveillancecentre, digital signatures are created and they are stored in thedatabase. The surveillance centre can issue a copy of the videoto all the interested subjects for scientific and research workand investigation. Regardless of the scope, each subsequentmanipulation of the video copy contents will certainly changethe hash value of all the frames. The procedure of determiningthe authenticity and credibility of videos is reduced to the comparisonof the hash values of the frames stored in the databaseof the surveillance centre with the values obtained from the interestedsubjects such as the traffic experts and investigators,surveillance-security services etc.

Željko Kokorović, Jasna Blašković-Zavada, Božica Radoš
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 6
The current transit procedure in railway transport that iscarried out on the basis of the Customs Act [ 11 of the Republicof Croatia is applied only up to the border, i. e. the issued documentsand guarantees are valid only up to the border, and byjoining the Convention on Common transit procedure, i. e. integrationof the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, theRepublic of Croatia will also have to implement the regulationsand rules of Simplified transit procedure valid in each of thethirty member states. In international railway traffic, the transportof goods is regulated by the Convention concerning InternationalCarriage by Rail- COT IF [2 1 and usage of the CIMwaybill (Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail).If the goods are transported in Simplified transit procedure, theformalities regarding the transport of goods performed by railcarriers using the international waybill CIM will be significantlysimplified and accelerated. In principle there are no delays dueto customs on the borders when crossing the EU borders andborders of the Convention member states, contributing greatlyto the acceleration of the transport of goods, reduction of waitingcosts and paperwork, as well as influence on the schedulereliability.

Mirando Hess, Svjetlana Hess, Serđo Kos
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
Most of transportation systems behave as MIMI1 queuingtype which is widely explored throughout scientific literature.On the other hand, there are a few real life examples of transportationsystems with deterministic service time. In this paperwe explore one of such systems and propose solution finding fortactical port operational problem by queuing model and heuristicmethod. A heuristic approach is developed as an alternativeto mathematical model solution finding. Between these twomethods, good SQlutions of known quality are provided quickly.Through simple example of bulk loading terminal, defined asMIDI1 system, comparison of the heuristic solutions to themathematical model indicates that the corresponding resultsmatch closely. On the basis of the experiment, we assume thatthe same heuristic with a slight modification would give acceptablesolution for a real life MIDIS problem where search for feasiblesolution by mathematical model is a tough and unacceptabletask in practical use.

Tomaž Tollazzi, Matjaž Šrami, Tone Lerher
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
The paper demonstrates the influence of the multi-channelpedestrian flow on the actual capacity of a one-lane roundabout,using micro-simulation and discrete functions. The proposedmodel is based on the theory of the expected time gap betweenthe units of pedestrian traffic flow, which have the prioritywhen crossing the arm of the roundabout. The proposedmodel represents an upgrade of the previous research in thefield of modelling traffic flows in the one-lane roundabout.Apart from the multi-channel pedestrian flow the disturbancescaused by the circular traffic flow of motorised vehicles at theroundabout are also considered. In this way the model canbetter illustrate the real conditions in traffic. A simulation analysishas been performed on the roundabout arm at KoroskaStreet in Maribor. The results of the analysis have indicated arelatively high reserve of the actual throughput capacity for themain motorized traffic flow in the analysed roundabout arm.The presented model represents a practicable and adaptabletool for planning the roundabout capacity in practice and forthe sensitivity analysis of individual variables on the throughputcapacity of the roundabout.

Gordana Dukić, Darko Dukić, Ivana Alerić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
The task of transport management is to organize the transportof goods from a number of sources to a number of destinationswith minimum total costs. The basic transportation modelassumes direct transport of goods from a source to a destinationwith constant unit transportation costs. In practice, however,goods are frequently transported through several transientpoints where they need to be transshipped. In such circumstancestransport planning and organization become increasinglycomplex. This is especially noticeable in water transport.Most of the issues are directly connected to port operations, asthey are the transshipment hubs. Since transportation is under anumber of influences, in today 's turbulent operating conditionsthe assumption on fixed unit transportation costs cannot betaken as realistic. In order to improve decision making in thetransportation domain, this paper will present a stochastictransshipment model in which cost estimate is based on MonteCarlo simulation. Simulated values of unit costs are used to devisean adequate linear programming model, the solving ofwhich determines the values of total minimum transportationcosts. After repeating the simulation for a sufficient number oftimes, the distribution of total minimum costs can be formed,which is the basis for the pertinent confidence interval estimation.It follows that the design, testing and application of thepresented model requires a combination of quantitative optimizationmethods, simulation and elements of inferential statistics,all with the support of computer and adequate software.

Nikola Mostarac, Stanislav Pavlin, Petar Mostarac
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
This paper deals with the take-off and landing procedure ofvarious aircraft types from the same nmway. There are four-type queues, three different holding positions and one approach.The simulation model for these conditions has been created.The simulation analysis of the use of manoeuvring areaby commercial and training aircraft indicates the necessity ofthe optimisation of the air traffic management and harmonisationof the participants' operational procedures.

Bojan Hlača, Vlado Mezak, Sniježana Papeš
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
The Container terminal of the Port of Rijeka is highlypromising due to the high rising trend of container traffic. Thecontainer terminal competitiveness of the Ports of Rijeka, Triesteand Koper shall be compared by competitiveness matrixdemonstrating the justifiability of investments in containerizationof the Port of Rijeka. The competitiveness also depends onthe traffic conne.ction between port and hinterland indicatingthe need to modernize traffic routes connecting the port to thetraffic network. Investments in port and traffic infrastructureprove their justification in upgrading a level of container terminalquality and capacity as well as in increasing incomes thatcan be generated by implementing the development plans formodernization of the port, railroad and road infrastructure.

Sabina Kamnik Zebec, Bojan Pirš, Hugo Maučec
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
We live in a time of continuous technical and technologicaldevelopment. It is the time of globalization which is the maindriver of the technological procedures in the process of executingtransport services. Railway transport in Europe requiresspecial attention, since it has a number of attributes which arenot being effectively used. Measures to reduce the use of roadnetwork have been prepared, which would consequently increaserailway transport. Individuals in personal vehicles couldreduce transport costs with the increasing use of railway transport.The introduction of car trains in Europe is also supportedby the European Union, but there has been very little done inthe European car train system. The first goal of the Europeanunion seems to be understandable : using piggyback transportto redirect as much road freight transport as possible to the Europeanrailway system. Car trains in the integrated Europeanrail system are one of numerous possibilities of how to offer auser of personal vehicle and his fellow passengers a safe, comfortable,economical and ecologically acceptable way of travelon a specific distance in the local or global sense of combinedtransport of vehicles and passengers.

Elen Twrdy, Bojan Beškovnik
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
This article describes orientations in optimization of operationson a maritime container terminal. With the application ofan adequate model for forecasting, planning and simulating itis possible to increase the productivity and optimize the capacityof the terminal. The emphasis is mainly on setting up the decisionmaking model, in order to raise productivity in all subsystemsof the maritime container terminal.Management of a maritime container terminal is a complexprocess, which includes a vast number of different decisions.The management must develop elements and strategiesfor checking the productivity and its rise, which can only beachieved through optimization of the entire system. Withknowledge about new technologies, operational processes,methods of forecast and simulation it is possible to achieve theeasiest usage of different strategies for improving productivity.This is particularly valid for terminals, where the physical extensionof the terminal is practically impossible and further developmentof the system is possible only by searching internalsources. Therefore, the management of a maritime containerterminal must develop an appropriate decision support mode~in order to make an adequate support to strategic decisions.These decisions relate basically to the assessment of the best developmentand optimization decisions and on application ofproposed solutions in the infrastructure and suprastructure ofthe terminal.

Peter-Anthony Ercegovac, Jurij Kolenc
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 5
The complexity of researching traffic under extraordinaryconditions in order to implement a more efficient and functionaltraffic management strategy under both normal and irregularconditions- as well as the grey zone of when the changefrom normal into extraordinary traffic conditions actually occur-provides the researcher with numerous methodologicalproblems.Starting from the viewpoint that the field of traffic scienceneeds an increase into the capacity of research into traffic underextraordinary conditions we have chosen to define withinthis article a specific methodological approach that undertakesa study into the exposure, menace, threat and risk faced by trafficsystems under extraordinary conditions through utilisingmethods utilised by the military that allow for the possible resolutionof such problems through compatible testing of both simulatedand real life conditions that such systems may face.In searching for possible applicable solutions to such demandingparametres we believe that the use of concrete informationin real time and real space in order to bring about amore efficient functioning of traffic under extraordinary conditionscan be achieved through the use of the analytical capacityof traffic systems information gathering attained through theusage of Uninhabited Flying Vehicles (UFVs) in monitoringroad, rail and maritime traffic and transport.

Tone Magister
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
The paper proposes a novel Autonomous Flight Airspaceconcept as a bridge between pure innovation and integration ofthe existing and envisioned highly automated ATM concepts,methodologies, metrics, and procedures. Novel technologies,operations, and procedures will lead to air traffic flows withnovel properties which together with adapted geometry and organizationof airspace will define the complexities of air trafficsituations in the Autonomous Flight Airspace and in its neighbourhood.The problem of transition flights to and from theAutonomous Flight Airspace is addressed from the complexityof in-flight traffic situations and consequent increase in conflictsbetween aircraft in the area perspective. Those are thedriving criteria for the positioning of transition layers betweenthe Autonomous Flight Airspace and the controlled airspace,their organization, and management of traffic flows in bothzones adjacent to the boundary between them as well.

Darko Šumanovac
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
By analyzing and defining events, and then sorting them outinto two distinct groups, this paper will highlight the similarityand frequency of safety factors in a given time frame. The aim isto comprehend the current level of flight safety and compare itto the situation of some fifteen years ago, regardless of technologicalimprovements. This paper shows critical situations asstarting events with possible preventive actions with the aim ofpreventing the development of events with consequences.

Jasna Jurum-Kipke, Sarajko Baksa, Zvonko Kavran
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
Every human working activity is related to adequate workloadand therefore also stress. The workloads of people workingin different working postures form a wide but still insufficientlystudied biomechanical and ergonomic field. Carrying, liftingand manipulating freight often results in relatively high loads,and in case of the need for increased frequency of such procedures,the result is an exhausting dynamic strain of the humanbody. The loads that can occur during human activities are inthe majority of cases related to their extremely non-ergonomicworking position. It has been determined that the working posturesof the human body are supported by the action of the musclesystem on the human locomotoric chain. Non-ergonomicposture of human body is harmful, especially in case when it isforced or when it is in the field of suboptimal condition. Highloads affect directly the human safety, and in case of longer exposureof the body to the action of such loads, the possibility formore permanent organism damages of organism may occur.

Peter Jenček, Elen Twrdy
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
Reaching decisions in the process of establishment and operationof a regional transport logistics terminal performingintermodal transport and related activities should be based onthe results of preliminary analysis. The selection of the appropriatelocation for the regional transport logistics terminal is ofcrucial importance as it affects directly and/or indirectly the initialfinancial investment, environmental and spatial issues aswell as terminal operating costs and commercial sustainability.In the decision-making process regarding the location ofintermodal terminals or with regard to building of a new regionalintermodal terminal at a specific location a thoroughtransport logistics analysis should be performed. The paperpresents the methodology developed for transport logisticsanalysis of regional intermodal transport logistics terminals,based on the sets of parameters, criteria and indicators whichenable the determination of the overall performance index for aparticular terminal location.

Mugdim Bublin, Samir Čaušević
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
In recent time the spectrum and infrastructure sharing hasbeen gaining more and more on importance due to high spectrumlicense costs and expensive infrastructure needed formodem high-bandwidth wireless communications. In this paperthe advantages and disadvantages of spectrum and infrastructuresharing by analytical models and simulations are analyzed.Results show that operators could significantly reducetheir costs, increase capacity and improve network quality bysharing their infrastructure and spectrum. Using Game Theoryit is shown how operators could 'protect themselves' againstnon-cooperative behaviour of other operators.

Vinko Gorenak, Marko Prevolčić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
In the theoretical part of this paper, the authors present criteriaby which the satisfaction of the public with police workcan be measured. The focus lies on those criteria that are significantfor police work in the community and for the reputationof the police as a state organ itself, which is co-responsible for(improving) security in the nation. The empirical part of thispaper is based on a study that included 120 residents from thearea of Slovenj Gradec police directorate. The interviewees hadto give their opinion on various questions or statements abouttheir satisfaction regarding police roadside procedures in thearea that they live in. Furthermore, the authors examined theextent to which the residents are willing to help police officers,how they evaluate their work, on what basis the residents shapetheir opinion and how they evaluate interpersonal competenciesof police officers. The results have shown that the satisfactionof residents with roadside police procedures in SlovenjGradec police directorate is relatively good since the majority ofanswers varies between 3 and 4 on a Likert scale ranging from 1to 5. Even though the evaluations are promising, the authorsconclude the paper with several recommendations.

Slavko Roguljić, Stanislav Pavlin, Denis Kosor
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

Edvard Roškar, Jelenko Švetak
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 4
Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

Seyyed Mohammad Sadat Hoseini, Manouchehr Vaziri
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3

The evermore widespread use of microscopic traffic simulationin the analysis of road systems has refocused attention onsub models, including car-following and lane-changing models.In this research a microscopic model is developed whichcombines car-following and lane-changing models and describesdriver behaviour as a crash risk reduction process ofdrivers. This model has been simulated by a cellular automatasimulator and compared with the real data. It has been shownthat there is no reason to consider the model invalid for drivers'behaviour in the basic segments of freeways in Iran, duringnot-congested conditions. Considering that uncertainty of positionof vehicles is caused by their acceleration or deceleration, aprobability function is calibrated for calculating the presenceprobability of vehicles in their feasible cells. Multiplying thepresence probability and impact of crash, crash risk of cells iscalculated. As an application of the model, it has been shownthat when difference between vehicles brake deceleration increases,the total crash risk increases.

Mihaela Bukljaš Skočibušić, Tomislav Drobac, Željko Sić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
The development of inland wate!Way traffic of the Republicof Croatia over the recent several years has attracted great attentionfrom experts whose tendencies are oriented to the developmentof strategy and traffic policy in the framework of theEuropean Union countries. The traffic increase on inland wate!Ways of Europe will be reflected on the increase in traffic oninland wate!Ways of the Republic of Croatia. Consequently,over the recent years the need has been recognized to improvethe border crossing mobility, as well as to improve the accessibilityto border areas on inland wate!Ways of the Republic ofCroatia. This paper attempts to briefly present the ERJ model(Electronic Reporting lntemational) in inland navigation,whose implementation will enable exchange of border informationamong authorities, vessels and other participants in inlandnavigation, by applying electronic notification messages in orderto facilitate crossing of international borders and trafficmanagement.

Sanja Steiner, Borivoj Galović, Željko Radačić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
The paper elaborates the past development of air traffic inEurope from the aspect of its economic benefits and ecologicallack of sustainability of conventional technology. The mainguidelines of the strategic development are related to the implementationof the global ecological standard and actual reformationprocesses of the air traffic management system postulatedby A TM 2000+ Strategy and the 'Single European Sky'standard. The paper studies the wider aspects of integrated trafficdevelopment at the regional level and the factors influencingfurther development of the European air traffic.

Tomislav Josip Mlinarić, Mladen Nikšić, Milan Brkić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
The implementation of fleet management in the train tractionactivity is a must in the conditions of market operation ofthe railway sector, since good management of traction units hasnot alternative. The crucial issue of implementing such sophisticatedtools is in real environment, and therefore SWOT analysisof the most important technological indicators has been carriedout, in order to determine the most efficient method of itsimplementation. The defined technological indicators and therespective criteria have been used to evaluate the possible implementationof the total fleet management system in the HiVuca vlakova (Hi- Train Traction) company. The pilot projectcarried out in the activities of the Hi- Train Traction hasresulted in great savings at the annual level in fuel consumption,creating also the preconditions for the savings in fleetmaintenance and work force recruitment. Based on the resultsof the pilot project the methodology for efficient implementationof fleet management was defined. The defined methodologywas tested in real conditions and can be implemented atany company which provides services of train traction or manoeuvringof locomotives.

Robert Spudić, Krešimir Somek, Vlado Kovačević
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
During the process of approaching the European associationsand NATO the Republic of Croatia has accepted the singlefuel concept for all ground vehicles of the Croatian Army.Croatia has also undertaken to insure that all aircraft, motorvehicles and equipment with turbo-engines or with pressurizedfuel injection, for participation in NATO and PfP led operationscan • operate using the kerosene-based aviation fuel(NATO F-34). The paper gives a brief overview and the resultsof the earned out activities in the Armed Forces of the Republicof Croatia, the expected behaviour of the motor vehicle andpossible delays caused by the use of kerosene fuel (NATOF-34) as fuel for motor vehicles. The paper also gives the advantagesand the drawbacks of the single fuel concept. By acquiringnew data in the Croatian Armed Forces and experienceexchange with other nations about the method of using fuelF-34, the development of the technologies of engine manufacturingand its vital parts or by introducing new standards in theproductjon of fuels and additives new knowledge will certainlybe acquired for providing logistics support in the area of operations,and its final implementation will be a big step forward forthe Republic of Croatia towards Europe and NATO.

Vedran Jelavić, Miloš Brajović, Ivica Đurđević-Tomaš
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
Port of Gruž is located in a naturally protected bay whichcan accommddate the biggest passenger cmisers and RO-ROships that sail the Mediterranean. At the same time there aremore yachts/'visiting the port because of the vicinity of theDubrovnik historic sites. The frequency of maritime traffic andother mariti~e services is rapidly increasing and sometimescausing owfrload in the summer months. The sizes of all kindsof ships a~d yachts that manoeuvre in the port are getting bigger.The itinerary for the following seasons and prognoses till2010 stress the increase in the number of ships, vehicles andpassengers. The activities at the passenger terminal are in progressat the moment and after completing all the works the passengerpier will be about BOOm long with the depth of 12m.Handling of cmisers will therefore be much easier and more efficient.Another benefit for the bay will be the construction ofthe Yacht marina and marina for the local boats all along thesouth-west coast of the bay. Considering summer peaks in allkinds of traffic it is necessary to analyse the state of all relevanttraffic factors and the density of traffic in order to organise safeand smooth flow of ships, vehicles and passengers through theport of Dubrovnik - Gmi.

Caj Holm, Lars Kallstorm, Mario Šafran
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
Intermodal transport can reduce the load of the road infrastructure.Knowledge gives it the necessary competitiveness andhelps to control its costs. Fast reaction to changing conditions,opportunities and requirements gives remarkable advantage.Setting up integrated logistic chains using alternative transportmodes requires the trust and close interaction of a variety of actorsinvolved in managing the chain. Especially in the dynamicmobile environment, knowledge has so far not been effectivelyused. FREIGHTWISE tackles this complexity by developing aframework architecture anchored and validated in a range ofdemonstration cases involving commercial and public actors.This paper discusses the general FREIGHTWISE objectivesand its North-East Case, the Logistiikkainfo goods transportservice network information system to be implemented for theEstonian - Finnish transport chain.

Mirjana Kovačić, Tihomir Luković, Čedomir Dundović
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 3
This paper presents systematically and concisely legal regulationsimportant for nautical tourism and the operation ofnautical ports. The authors have examined the cu'ent legalsystem and considered and determined its implementation androle in the development of nautical tourism. The developmentof nautical tourism requires complex legal regulation becausepublic and private interests, international conventions and nationalregulations and numerous elements of navigation safetyare interlinked at different levels. The developed Medite'aneancountries like Spain, France and Italy have very old regulationsand efficient systems for enforcing and upgrading them. Thesystem of enforcing the laws, testing them and decreasing therisks and difficulties which may arise from inadequate formulationsis often more important than the law itself The less developedcountries, like Croatia and Greece, have not acceptedthe problem, and therefore create a certain degree of legal insecurityand inefficiency of the enforced laws. The paper has definedand analysed the existing problems and indicated the possiblesolutions. The development of a logistics system of normativeconditions relating to nautical tourism and nautical tourismports has been defined and a logistics model of strategic decision-making presented.

Danijela Tuljak-Suban, Elen Twrdy
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
The transport of empty containers represents a seriousproblem in the fast growing sphere of maritime container transport.The most widespread type of container transport organizationin maritime transport is the hub and spoke mode, whichenables the transport of a great number of containers via largevessels between hub ports, from where feeder ships transport tosmaller ports that thus gravitate to the central hub port. The articlecontains a detailed analysis of the northern Adriatic portsand the feeder connections with the hub ports of the Mediterranean.A two-level VRPPD (Vehicle Routing Problem withPickup and Delivery) problem is modelled on a graph, wherethe transport of full containers is privileged over the transport ofempty containers. This enables the simulation of the feeder systemin the n01them Adriatic, meaning that it shows the ship'soperator the movement programme with minimal transportcosts for the superfluous empty containers in the complex of theregular transports of full containers in the feeder system.

Andrej Lisec, Bojan Rosi, Zvonko Kavran
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
Modern complexity of management is associated with importantdecision making, confronting a great number of uselessinformation. Selection of information- the choice of only qualityones, i. e. essential ones, is a big problem in management decision-making. Implementation of systemic approach i. e. dialectical-network thinking (DNT) can help to deal with it. Thepaper presents a holistic thinking approach in a case study forthe Slovenian parcel postal problem. The volume of parcelflows at the Post of Slovenia between Posts is increasing rapidlyand it requires a new design of the postal network. This paperpresents a reorganization of parcel services between Postal LogisticsCenters and Posts by adding Regional Parcel Centersand Parcel Posts to the network. A case for the area covered byLjubljana Postal Logistics Center is given, which takes intoconsideration the sorting out and the retaining of parcels in thePosts, Parcel Posts and Regional Parcel Centers within their individualareas.

Tomislav Crnković, Ernest Bazijanac, Danko Basch
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
A simulation model of the radar network operation of fivemilitary radar stations has been developed. Simulation waspeiformed in GPSS language and contains the time of operationof five radars through a period of one year, time of plannedpreventive maintenance, irregularities, time of corrective maintenanceand maintenance team(s). The simulation shows theinfluence of the number of maintenance teams on the availabilityof each radar and presents a good orienteering point fordefining the optimal model of preventive and corrective maintenanceof the radar network.

Islam El-Nakib, Charles Roberts
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
The role of supply chains has been significant in strengtheningthe competitiveness of interna tiona[ trade among countries.Regional Distribution Centres (RDCs) are among the remarkabledrivers of any international trade supply chains. The Egyptianexports face severe competition in the international marketwhich has led the Egyptian government to join regional tradeblocks such as the Common Market for Eastern and SouthernAfrica (COMESA) for the aim of establishing export channelsto new markets. Therefore, applying the concept of RDCs wasexamined to enhance the performance of Egyptian exportswhich are facing high competition in the EU, US, and Asianmarkets. Thus, the purpose of this research is to study the associatedaspects to this area of interest based on a survey whichhas targeted the Egyptian exporters who are directly dealingwith the CO MESA to cover several issues regarding the tradebetween Egypt and CO MESA. Moreover, this survey has alsoincluded the analysis of the reasons that make the CO MESAprefer other international products rather than the Egyptianproducts, and the attitudes towards the proposed selection ofEgypt's RDCs in COMESA. In addition, this survey is alsoidentifying the main features of the Egyptian exports comparedwith the foreign exports in COMESA and the recommendedaction to be taken towards the establishment of the EgyptianRDCs in CO MESA.

Kristijan Rogić, Branislav Šutić, Goran Kolarić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
Fleet management systems are increasingly changing invarious transport companies. Although according to claims ofdifferent producers, the usage of such systems can achieve greatsavings in the business operation, the studies show that for optimalfunctioning of such systems it is necessary to carry out theevaluation of the company and the very systems according toseveral criteria. The methodology that allows the FM implementationwithin the transport companies starts from the analysisof the characteristics of carriers, characteristics ofprogramme packages, which is followed by the evaluation accordingto several criteria which influence the final choice. Theobjective of such approach is the adaptation to the users' requirementswhich eventually results in the improvement andsavings in the operation.

Dejan Paliska, Jurij Kolenc
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
This article uses a statistical approach to examine the bussystem reliability in the city of Koper. Four statistical modelswere developed using OLS to explain the effect of different variableson system reliability. The results indicate that the operatorhas no serious problems with maintaining system reliability,and that the most important factors affecting reliability are delayvariation at previous time point and cumulative distancefrom route origin. Although the available data were not complete,the results presented appear to be accurate. The resultsobtained from the developed models could be used to estimatebus delays under various conditions.

Gregor Veselko, Igor Jakomin
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
The background of the paper is the substantial developmentin international business with special regard to globalizationand business internationalization going on over the pastfew years. The latest has put many companies facing big challengesand devised methods for their sustainable incorporationin global supply chains. The purpose of the paper is to help outthe reader and explain the major effects the globalization andbusiness internationalization have on business strategy formationand its implementation. Coordinating business strategyhas become one of the key elements for international competitiveattractiveness. The final goal of the paper is to make a logicalconnection between supply chain management strategy andcorporate strategy. The results of the paper confirm the basicimplication that the supply chain management strategy andc01porate strategy must be coordinated and implemented accordingto certain requirements, considering that the sustainablecorporate strategy is the logical consequence of a thoroughlyexamined and properly understood supply chain managementstrategy.

Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar, Čedomir Ivaković, Ljupko Šimunović
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 2
Logistic approach to traffic means new business policy,economy and ownership, new internal organization, externaland internal communication, different corporate cultures, humanresources management using scientific methods, trainingand education, changed management type and awarding system,knowledge of information technology, communicationskills, electronic commerce, etc. Education is part of all theseelements. The introduction of logistics in all the business activitieshas been imposed due to the following reasons: because ofthe life-cycle shortening of the product and its delivery, becauseof sudden technological development, because of productionand market globalization, because of the increase in competitiveness.This paper describes first various logistic activities with theindication of practical and scientific approaches. The logisticsapproach in the traffic activities requires upgrading of the professionaland scientific level to a higher one which means additionaltraining and acquiring of new skills as well as new technologiesfor the employees.The basic aim of research was to specifY the basic logisticsactivities and problems in order to indicate the need of differentforms of education. Fast technological and social changes requireconstant improvement and modification of professionalknowledge and acqui1ing of new scientific methods and skills.

Anita Domitrović, Ernest Bazijanac, Ivo Čala
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
A mathematical model for optimising preventive maintenanceof aircraft jet engine was developed by dynamic programming.Replacement planning for jet engine modules is regardedas a multistage decision process, while optimum modulereplacement is considered as a problem of equipment replacement.The goal of the optimal replacement policy of jet enginemodules is a defined series of decisions resulting in minimummaintenance costs. The model was programmed inC++ programming language and tested by using CFM56 jetengine data. The optimum maintenance strategy costs werecompared to costs of simpler experience-based maintenancestrategies. The results of the comparison j usti.JY further developmentand usage of the model in order to achieve significant costreduction for airline carriers.

Miran Zgonik, Frančišek Bizjan
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
The increase of cars engine power has reached critical limits,so that further increase would make no sense, since alreadythe real traffic conditions now do not enable its reasonable exploitation.Experiments have confirmed that there is no essentialdifference between the more or less powerful cars in combinedtraffic in and near towns, particularly when fully complyingwith traffic regulations. For the evaluation of the car 'adequacy'a non-dimensional criterion number Nv was proposed.This number 1ises with the rising weight (safety), speed, lowerfuel consumption and faster acceleration. The usual Nv valuesat JOOkm!h are between 1 and 3 for the majority of ordinarycars. Statistics comprising a great number of cars in the past decadesshowed that the said criterion number turned out to be anadequate parameter for the assessment of development trends.Experiments showed that a higher criterion number value inreal traffic does not represent much advantage even in dynamicdriving.

Igor Trupac
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
Today, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe ( CEE)have developed into a fast growing and promising part of Europe.The vision of the management of the Port of Koper is tobecome the most important logistics centre for these countries.In the future the North Adriatic region will have to cope withfurther challenge, i. e. an increasing presence of the Asian Pacificeconomies on the European continent and in the CEEcountries in particular. For the traffic flows from this source,from the geo-transport aspects the North Adriatic is the mostconvenient seaway/ route.It was for this reason that the P011 of Koper as a key companytogether with other companies joined the pilot project -STLC (Slovenian Transport Logistics Cluster) as a stakeholder.The main purpose of STLC is to promote the Sloveniantransport route.Clusters definitely represent a novelty to the Slovenianeconomy, yet in other parts of the world clusters are known asimportant stimulation factor in the field of development. Hencethey enabled the assertion of competitive advantages, which ledto their international prevalence.This paper aims to: (I) review the current state of the developmentof Slovenian transport logistics cluster, (II) assess thepotential benefits of such a cluster for Slovenia and the membersof STLC, (III) introduce initial presentations, experiencesand results.

Damir Zec, Vlado Frančić, Igor Rudan
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
This paper analyzes the level of implementation of the ISPSCode in the Croatian ports. The analysis is based on the PortState Control inspections as the most important controllingmechanisms for evaluation of the adherence to the internationalregulations. In this respect the analysis of the security-relatedmeasures in ports is ca'ied out implicitly - it is based onthe analysis of the security-related deficiencies found on shipssince ISPS Code came into force. The period of one and a halfyears, from the beginning of the ISPS Code implementation, isconsidered to be representative to provide initial assessment ofthe effectiveness of the implemented security measures. In addition,the paper presents conclusions based on the comparisonof results of security-related inspections in Croatian ports withdata presented by the Paris and other MOU inspection database.

Dragica Dalić, Sanja Durbek, Adrijana Orlić Babić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
The quality of transportation se1vices understands quickness,accuracy and safety at minimal costs for the carrier andthe service user. Possible emergency situations may bring substantialmaterial and business damage both to the service userand to the transportation service provider. Carrier's liability insurancegives the carrier security in case of evidenced full orpartial loss or damage of goods, as well as in case of delay in delivery.The insurance allows annulment of carrier's costs generatedby emergency situations which favourably affects the operationof transportation companies and allows maintenance ofthe quality of the carrier's se1vices. The work analyses the presenceof can·ier's liability insurance in the Republic of Croatia atfive insurance companies, through the analysis of the totalnumber of insurances and the number of insured vehicles, followingthe trend in this type of insurance and its influence onthe quality of the carrier services.

Alžbeta Bielikova
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
The article deals with corporate culture in transport organization.The corporate culture has a momentary character and itis affected by continual confrontation with business prioritiesand by movement of external environment. For this reason theactivity of transport organization must be still adapted to customerexpectations and needs and c01porate culture must beadapted to this objective.

Lukša Novak, Pero Bilas, Mate Melvan
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
airport system; catchment zones; tourism; competition; marketliberalization

Mario Šafran, Darko Babić, Dubravko Tomašić
2008 (Vol 20), Issue 1
Planning of distribution understands the development of afeasible and viable distribution plan of finished products fromthe producers, via logistics and distribution centres, storage orcrossdocking, to end users. Furthermore, planning represents asupp01t to decision-making by identifying the alternatives of thefuture activities and by selecting the good and optimal ones. It isimportant to note that the scope of planning of logistics and distributionprocesses is not limited only to the planning of production,transport or distribution. It covers the entire logisticsand distribution process with all these elements.

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