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Borna Abramović, Anna Fraszczyk
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

Journal Editorial Board
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

Darja Topolšek, Dejan Dragan
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

The goal of the study was to investigate if the drivers behave in the same way when they are driving a motorcycle or a car. For this purpose, the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire were conducted among the same drivers population. Items of questionnaires were used to develop a structural equation model with two factors, one for the motorcyclist’s behaviour, and the other for the car driver’s behaviour. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were also applied in this study. Results revealed a certain difference in driving behaviour. The principal reason lies probably in mental consciousness that the risk-taking driving of a motorbike can result in much more catastrophic consequences than when driving a car. The drivers also pointed out this kind of thinking and the developed model has statistically confirmed the behavioural differences. The implications of these findings are also argued in relation to the validation of the appropriateness of the existing traffic regulations.


Fang Zong, Xiao Sun, Huiyong Zhang, Xiumei Zhu, Wentian Qi
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6
This study investigates taxi drivers’ multi-day cruising behaviours with GPS data collected in Shenzhen, China. By calculating the inter-daily variability of taxi drivers’ cruising behaviours, the multi-day cruising patterns are investigated. The impacts of learning feature and habitual feature on multi-day cruising behaviours are determined. The results prove that there is variability among taxis’ day-to-day cruising behaviours, and the day-of-week pattern is that taxi drivers tend to cruise a larger area on Friday, and a rather focused area on Monday. The findings also indicate that the impacts of learning feature and habitual feature are more obvious between weekend days than among weekdays. Moreover, learning feature between two sequent weeks is found to be greater than that within one week, while the habitual feature shows recession over time. By revealing taxis' day-to-day cruising pattern and the factors influencing it, the study results provide us with crucial information in predicting taxis' multi-day cruising locations, which can be applied to simulate taxis' multi-day cruising behaviour as well as to determine the traffic volume derived from taxis' cruising behaviour. This can help us in planning of transportation facilities, such as stop stations or parking lots for taxis. Moreover, the findings can be also employed in predicting taxis' adjustments of multi-day cruising locations under the impact of traffic management strategies.

Florin Nemtanu, Ilona Madalina Costea, Catalin Dumitrescu
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

The paper is focused on the Fourier transform application in urban traffic analysis and the use of said transform in traffic decomposition. The traffic function is defined as traffic flow generated by different categories of traffic participants. A Fourier analysis was elaborated in terms of identifying the main traffic function components, called traffic sub-functions. This paper presents the results of the method being applied in a real case situation, that is, an intersection in the city of Bucharest where the effect of a bus line was analysed. The analysis was done using different time scales, while three different traffic functions were defined to demonstrate the theoretical effect of the proposed method of analysis. An extension of the method is proposed to be applied in urban areas, especially in the areas covered by predictive traffic control.


Meng Meng, Abdul Ahad Memon, Yiik Diew Wong, Soi Hoi Lam
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

A commuter’s mode choice decision in response to provided traveller information is directly dependent on the temporal and spatial interactions between the available travel modes, the network performance and control schemes, and the supplied traveller information. A self-developed simulation model – Intelligent Network Simulation Model (INSIM) – was employed to simulate travel scenarios in a multimodal transportation network. A set of experiments was designed to analyse and evaluate the influence of traffic information on commuter’s mode choice, using a medium-sized area in Singapore. Simulation results showed that the private-to-public mode switch propensity bears a strong and direct relation with amount of disseminated integrated multimodal traveller information (IMTI) as well as timeliness of information update. Other influential factors include degrees of accessibility and compliance to IMTI, and congestion-related events such as accidents.


Anıl İnanlı, Başak Ünsal, Deniz Türsel Eliiyi
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6
This study considers the distribution network of a well-known perishable food manufacturer and its franchises in Turkey. As the countrywide number of stores is increasing fast, the company is facing problems due to its central distribution of products from a single factory. The objective is to decrease the cost of transportation while maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. Hence, the focus is on the vehicle routing problem (VRP) of this large franchise chain within each city. The problem is defined as a rich VRP with heterogeneous fleet, site-dependent and compartmentalized vehicles, and soft/hard time windows. This NP-hard problem is modelled and tried with real data on a commercial solver. A basic heuristic procedure which can be used easily by the decision makers is also employed for obtaining quick and high-quality solutions for large instances.

Mian Muhammad Mubasher, Syed Waqar ul Qounain Jaffry
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6
Urban traffic flow is a complex system. Behavior of an individual driver can have butterfly effect which can become root cause of an emergent phenomenon such as congestion or accident. Interaction of drivers with each other and the surrounding environment forms the dynamics of traffic flow. Hence global effects of traffic flow depend upon the behavior of each individual driver. Due to several applications of driver models in serious games, urban traffic planning and simulations, study of a realistic driver model is important. Hhence cognitive models of a driver agent are required. In order to address this challenge concepts from cognitive science and psychology are employed to design a computational model of driver cognition which is capable of incorporating law abidance and social norms using big five personality profile.

Ivana Šemanjski
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6

Travel time forecasting is an interesting topic for many ITS services. Increased availability of data collection sensors increases the availability of the predictor variables but also highlights the high processing issues related to this big data availability. In this paper we aimed to analyse the potential of big data and supervised machine learning techniques in effectively forecasting travel times. For this purpose we used fused data from three data sources (Global Positioning System vehicles tracks, road network infrastructure data and meteorological data) and four machine learning techniques (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, boosting trees and random forest).

To evaluate the forecasting results we compared them in-between different road classes in the context of absolute values, measured in minutes, and the mean squared percentage error. For the road classes with the high average speed and long road segments, machine learning techniques forecasted travel times with small relative error, while for the road classes with the small average speeds and segment lengths this was a more demanding task. All three data sources were proven itself to have a high impact on the travel time forecast accuracy and the best results (taking into account all road classes) were achieved for the k-nearest neighbours and random forest techniques.


Ying-En Ge, Olegas Prentkovskis, Chunyan Tang, Wafaa Saleh, Michael G. H. Bell, Raimundas Junevičius
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6
It is nowadays widely accepted that solving traffic congestion from the demand side is more important and more feasible than offering more capacity or facilities for transportation. Following a brief overview of evolution of the concept of Travel Demand Management (TDM), there is a discussion on the TDM foundations that include demand-side strategies, traveler choice and application settings and the new dimensions that ATDM (Active forms of Transportation and Demand Management) bring to TDM, i.e. active management and integrative management. Subsequently, the authors provide a short review of the state-of-the-art TDM focusing on relevant literature published since 2000. Next, we highlight five TDM topics that are currently hot: traffic congestion pricing, public transit and bicycles, travel behavior, travel plans and methodology. The paper closes with some concluding remarks.

Ferit YAKAR
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 6
In this study, assuming that traffic accident occurrence is determined by some road and environment related factors, and future traffic accidents will occur under the same conditions as past traffic accidents, use of Relative Frequency Method (RFM) (also called frequency ratio method) in the determination of accident-prone road sections is investigated. Method was tested on a highway in Trabzon province of Turkey. At the end of the study, sensitivity and specificity values were calculated as 1.00 and 0.83 respectively, which reflects that the method identified all of the 'accident-prone' sections (there is no false negative) and the method has very strong ability to distinguish 'relatively safe' sections. The most useful property of the method is that, if accident data does not exist due to any reason for some part of the road, method can be still used to identify accident-prone sections by using the road properties.

Qi Li, Ren-Yong Guo, Wen-Juan Yang
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5

The left-turn of vehicles at intersections has significant impacts on urban traffic congestions and accidents, which have negative effect on vehicle emissions causing air pollution. Many urban traffic networks prohibit direct left-turns for transport planning to keep traffic moving efficiently on major roads. As such, this paper proposes a bi-level mathematical model for left-turn prohibition planning considering both travel times and traffic emissions. The lower-level and upper-level are respectively solved by using the Frank-Wolfe algorithm and an improved genetic algorithm. By numerical examples, this paper shows that the improved algorithm can effectively enhance the speed and accuracy of the calculation, and the traffic congestions and emissions can be alleviated by implementing the left-turn prohibition at some carefully selected intersections.


Sebastian Kot
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
The problem of cost management in road transport enterprises is one of the most crucial ones for their efficient functioning. The enterprises functioning on the market are very different so it is important to analyse their costs structure in relation to their size. The author provides a discussion on road transport costs identification and problems related to it. The considerations are based on the background of road transport importance in transport services in Poland and chosen European Union countries. Then, the research methodology consisting of elaborated questionnaire and the research sample are defined with special attention to the company size. The author provides research results on the costs structure in road transport enterprises in southern Poland and presents their components and differences. The author noticed the differences in costs structure in relation to the company size with domination of employment costs in micro and small road transport enterprises and costs of fuel in larger companies that result from better resource management.

Zoltan Bokor, Rita Markovits-Somogyi
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

Lovro Maglić, Damir Zec, Vlado Frančić
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
The paper presents outcomes of the discrete event simulation of the ballast water management in a multi-terminal port. The simulation includes ship’s manoeuvring, cargo and ballast operations and a barge-based ballast water treatment system operating within all terminal areas. The barge-based ballast water treatment system is used by ships unable to use their own equipment, not equipped with an appropriate ballast treatment system or non-compliant with the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention 2004 for whatever reason. The main goal is to estimate the productivity and cost effectiveness of such systems as an option to support ships not able to comply with the BWM Convention, once it enters into force. The model was built and tested in Arena simulation software. Process parameters are based on real traffic data for the port of Rijeka. The results indicate that barge-based ballast treatment facility will be heavily underutilized, and that such systems are cost-effective only in ports where large volumes of ballast water need to be delivered to shore treatment systems.

Ondrej Pribyl, Milan Koukol, Jana Kuklova
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
Highway management systems are used to improve safety and driving comfort on highways by using control strategies and providing information and warnings to drivers. They use several strategies starting from speed and lane management, through incident detection and warning systems, ramp metering, weather information up to, for example, informing drivers about alternative roads. This paper provides a review of the existing approaches to highway management systems, particularly speed harmonization and ramp metering. It is focused only on modern and advanced approaches, such as soft computing, multi-agent methods and their interconnection. Its objective is to provide guidance in the wide field of highway management and to point out the most relevant recent activities which demonstrate that development in the field of highway management is still important and that the existing research exhibits potential for further enhancement.

Tomás Rodríguez García, Nicoletta González Cancelas, Francisco Soler-Flores
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
The correct prediction in the transport logistics has vital importance in the adequate means and resource planning and in their optimisation. Up to this date, port planning studies were based mainly on empirical, analytical or simulation models. This paper deals with the possible use of Bayesian networks in port planning. The methodology indicates the work scenario and how the network was built. The network was afterwards used in container terminals planning, with the support provided by the tools of the Elvira code. The main variables were defined and virtual scenarios inferences were realised in order to carry out the analysis of the container terminals scenarios through probabilistic graphical models. Having performed the data analysis on the different terminals and on the considered variables (berth, area, TEU, crane number), the results show the possible relationships between them. Finally, the conclusions show the obtained values on each considered scenario.

Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5

Hrvoje Pilko, Krunoslav Tepeš, Tadej Brezina
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
Studying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.


Qun Chen, Yan Wang
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 5
Taking time-varying parking demands and supplies into account, this paper develops a dynamic parking choice model to simulate drivers’ searching for parking spaces between parking lots. In this study, each parking lot has one access passage and vehicles can move or wait for entering the park in the access passage. The flow propagation formula in the access passage of parking lots is established to obtain the number of vehicles entering the parking lot from the access passage within each time interval. This paper brings forward the instantaneous dynamic user-optimal condition of dynamic parking choice, constructs an equivalent variational inequality (VI) model and develops a diagonalization algorithm to solve the model. A numerical example demonstrates the rate of in-flow, the rate of out-flow, link flow, instantaneous travel time on each link or access passage of the parking lot, and the amount and routes of cruising traffic at each time point.

Xiao-Shan Lu, Ren-Yong Guo
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4

A bi-objective programming model (BP) with spatial equity constraints is proposed to site park-and-ride (P&R) facilities in traffic networks. Both the number and locations of P&R facilities are determined. The maximal coverage and minimal resource utilization criteria, which are generally conflicting, are simultaneously considered to reveal the trade-off between the quality and cost of coverage. Furthermore, the concept of passenger flow volume per cost is defined and several properties of the model solutions are analyzed. Finally, this model is applied to site P&R facilities in Anaheim, California. Application results show the trade-offs associated with passenger flow volume, cost and passenger flow volume per cost, and the effects of spatial equity constraints on the spatial deployment of P&R facilities.



Shiquan Zhong, Juanjuan Hu, Shuiping Ke, Xuelian Wang, Jingxian Zhao, Baozhen Yao
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
Effective bus travel time prediction is essential in transit operation system. An improved support vector machine (SVM) is applied in this paper to predict bus travel time and then the efficiency of the improved SVM is checked. The improved SVM is the combination of traditional SVM, Grubbs’ test method and an adaptive algorithm for bus travel-time prediction. Since error data exists in the collected data, Grubbs’ test method is used for removing outliers from input data before applying the traditional SVM model. Besides, to decrease the influence of the historical data in different stages on the forecast result of the traditional SVM, an adaptive algorithm is adopted to dynamically decrease the forecast error. Finally, the proposed approach is tested with the data of No. 232 bus route in Shenyang. The results show that the improved SVM has good prediction accuracy and practicality.

Bia Mandžuka, Zvonko Kavran
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4

Jozef Gašparík, Borna Abramović, Martin Halás
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
A variety of methodologies are being used across Europe for the estimation of railway infrastructure capacity. This paper introduces the basic principles of the methodologies used – analytical methodology (e.g. Slovak railways), UIC methodology, and the graphically developed methodology of the Department of Railway Transport, University of Žilina (KŽD). On the basis of these new approaches, the occupation time estimation is researched. This new method is based on a graphic approach that uses operational time intervals as part of occupation time in accordance with the Slovak methodology. The new methodology concerns graphic capacity estimation and is a conceptual framework developed by the authors for easier evaluation of occupation time in train traffic diagrams.

Murat Darçın, Murat Alkan
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4

Previous research has shown that mobile phone use while driving increases the risk of being involved in an accident. This paper investigates the reported frequency of taxi drivers' mobile phone use and its effects on traffic safety. A representative sample of taxi drivers was included in an interview-based survey by trained interviewers. It was found that 81% of the taxi drivers reported talking by using hand-held phone while driving. There is a relationship between the phoning while driving and drivers' self-reported involvement in a dangerous situation. It is clear that the use of mobile phone while driving is an important traffic safety issue.


Çağlar Koşun, Hüseyin Murat Çelik, Serhan Özdemir
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
Traffic flow data are stochastic in nature, and an abundance of literature exists thereof. One way to express stochastic data is the Langevin equation. Langevin equation consists of two parts. The first part is known as the deterministic drift term, the other as the stochastic diffusion term. Langevin equation does not only help derive the deterministic and random terms of the selected portion of the city of Istanbul traffic empirically, but also sheds light on the underlying dynamics of the flow. Drift diagrams have shown that slow lane tends to get congested faster when vehicle speeds attain a value of 25 km/h, and it is 20 km/h for the fast lane. Three or four distinct regimes may be discriminated again from the drift diagrams; congested, intermediate, and free-flow regimes. At places, even the intermediate regime may be divided in two, often with readiness to congestion. This has revealed the fact that for the selected portion of the highway, there are two main states of flow, namely, congestion and free-flow, with an intermediate state where the noise-driven traffic flow forces the flow into either of the distinct regimes.

Polona Tominc, Urban Šebjan
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the importance of different determinants and their impact on the severity of injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents, so that measures that are supposed to prevent or reduce severe injury consequences can be developed. In this paper three research models have been built. Model I was built to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age) on the individual’s likelihood to wear a seat-belt while Model II to study the impact of demographic factors (gender and age) and the impact of wearing a seat belt on the likelihood that fatal injuries of individuals in road traffic accidents occur. Model III was formed to study the impact of several environmental factors on the likelihood that the accident involves severe or fatal injuries of road traffic accident participants. Altogether our study revealed that middle-aged individuals (over 25 years and up to 65 years old) are less likely to wear a seat belt and at the same time more likely to suffer fatal injuries in road traffic accidents. This is the result that implies that the targeted policy measures to the population between 25 and 65 years of age are needed to reduce the fatal injuries occurrence in Slovenia.

Siniša Husnjak, Ivan Forenbacher, Tino Bucak
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
The methods of measuring driving behaviour and the quality of drive in road transport are important factors in data acquisition and subsequent analysis of driving. The prevalence of smart terminal devices and cost effectiveness of On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) sensor devices provide great potential and the availability of the aforementioned technologies. This study shows the possibility of using information and communication technologies (ICT) and sensor devices for measuring the effectiveness of eco-driving. The ease of implementation of ICT elements, the accuracy of collected data and their storage for later data analysis offer a number of possibilities to use. This study shows the technical solution of the system and analysis of collected data on actual driving samples. By comparing normal and eco-driving modes, the advantage of using eco-driving modes is demonstrated through reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions amounting to almost 23% and 31%, respectively.

Hui Han, Eva Ponce Cueto
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 4
Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP) in literature. Based on a classification of waste collection (residential, commercial and industrial), firstly the key findings for these three types of waste collection are presented. Therefore, according to the model (Node Routing Problems and Arc Routing problems) used to represent WCVRP, different methods and techniques are analyzed in this paper to solve WCVRP. This paper attempts to serve as a roadmap of research literature produced in the field of WCVRP.


Tomaž Kramberger, Bojan Rupnik, Gregor Štrubelj, Klemen Prah
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3
This paper presents a new approach for hinterland modelling based on the results of port choice modelling. The paper follows the idea that the shippers’ port choice is a trade-off between various objective and subjective factors. The presented model tackles the problem by applying the AHP method in order to obtain ports’ preference rates based on subjective factors, and combine them with objective factors, which include port operation costs, sailing times, and land transport costs using MILP. The ports’ hinterlands are modelled by finding the optimal port of choice for different locations across Europe and merging the identical results. The model can be used in order to produce captive hinterland of ports and can also be exploited in order to analyse how changes in the traffic infrastructure influence the size of hinterlands.

Bin Yu, Keming Wang, Zixuan Peng, Can Wang, Ziyou Gao, Baozhen Yao
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3
This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

Muhammed Yasin Çodur, Ahmet Tortum
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3

This study presents an accident prediction model of Erzurum’s Highways in Turkey using artificial neural network (ANN) approaches. There are many ANN models for predicting the number of accidents on highways that were developed using 8 years with 7,780 complete accident reports of historical data (2005-2012). The best ANN model was chosen for this task and the model parameters included years, highway sections, section length (km), annual average daily traffic (AADT), the degree of horizontal curvature, the degree of vertical curvature, traffic accidents with heavy vehicles (percentage), and traffic accidents that occurred in summer (percentage). In the ANN model development, the sigmoid activation function was employed with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The performance of the developed ANN model was evaluated by mean square error (MSE), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the coefficient of determination (R2). The model results indicate that the degree of vertical curvature is the most important parameter that affects the number of accidents on highways.


Jinxing Shen, Wenquan Li, Feng Qiu, Shukang Zheng
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3
This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of different types of traffic flows on the capacity of freeway merge areas. Based on the classical gap-acceptance model, two calculating models were established specifically considering randomly arriving vehicles and individual difference in driving behaviours. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented to reproduce the maximum traffic volume on the designed freeway merge area under different situations. The results demonstrated that the proposed calculating models have better performance than the conventional gap-acceptance theory on accurately predicting the capacity of freeway merge areas. The findings of research could be helpful to improve the microscopic traffic flow simulation model from a more practical perspective and support the designing of freeway merge areas as well.

Algimantas Kajackas, Vidas Žuraulis, Edgar Sokolovskij
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3

The paper presents Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) system based on an analysis of the movement of a motorcade in an emergency situation. This analysis seeks to answer the question: when and under what conditions Emergency Message (EM) sent by Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) system reaches the final target to help in preventing of serious accidents, such as multi-vehicle collisions. The model of calculation based on the key principles of vehicle braking enables finding the time to possible collision and the residual velocity of the vehicle. In the calculations, the average values of the driver’s reaction time are accepted; in addition, a sent emergency message is considered to be free of interference. Upon choosing different road and driving conditions, it is found what vehicle of the motorcade stops before the possible obstacle on emergency braking. The performance of vehicles with and without VANET system is compared.


Tadej Brezina, Josef Michael Schopf, David Moncholi y Badillo
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3
Public transport in the transition zone from cities to rural areas is increasingly becoming a focus from the financial and public service provision perspective. The (perceived) supply differences of rural and remote areas are on the agenda of policy discourse. Our survey studies the public transport supply of two districts and their municipalities in the region of Vienna, Austria, by using the parameters of service-opportunities, municipal population, acreage of settlement units and potential demand. Annual service-opportunities is a parameter recorded by the public transport authority of the Vienna region for every single station under its zone of influence. These parameters are analyzed to conclude that service-opportunities pose a viable entity for systematic public transport analysis and differences in supply of these two districts are in contrast to expectations. Finally, we address the need for future development of service-opportunities based analyses.

Miroslav Vujić, Sadko Mandzuka, Martin Greguric
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3
The problem with traffic congestion is particularly expressed in urban areas where possibilities for physical increment of capacity are limited or impossible. Significant in the approach to solving this problem is the usage of Public Transport (PT) and the implementation of various advanced control measures that can improve the quality of overall public transport system. The main objective of this research is to explore the possibilities of implementation of adaptive traffic control on signalized intersections giving priority to public transport vehicles through urban traffic network in the city of Zagreb. The possibilities of implementing public transport priority (PTP) technique in the city of Zagreb are analyzed because of specific traffic situations on defined corridors (location of stops, distance between intersections, etc.). With proper usage of PTP techniques (e.g. adequate detector positions, good estimation of PT vehicle arrival time at intersection) the total tram travel time can be significantly reduced. The Level of Service at intersection may be approximately retained because cross-street traffic demand was not ignored. According to technological level of traffic control system in the city of Zagreb, global implementation of PTP is not possible. So, for each intersection the PTP algorithm was developed separately, but mutual traffic influence of all intersections on the corridor was considered. The cooperative concept application within urban traffic control is considered as well.

Dalibor Pešić, Boris Antić, Davor Brčić, Jelica Davidović
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 3

Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.
In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of different age groups of which 412 were returned. The survey was completely anonymous and consisted of two parts. The first part was related to basic demographic information about the respondents and it had 8 closed type questions. These questions were responded by circling one of the offered answers. The second part of the survey referred to determining the driver’s attitudes about energy drinks and caffeine. The second part consisted of 26 questions and respondents were to use a five-level scale in order to show to what extent they agree or disagree with any of the listed statements.
The results show that energy drinks are consumed mostly by young people, less than 25 years old. The effect of caffeine on gender is statistically significant. Headache is the reason why caffeine (25%) is consumed more than energy drinks (8%).
Major impact of energy drinks and caffeine on road safety indicates a required activity in this area such as education.


Tomislav Kos
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2


Ünal ÖZDEMİR, Abdulaziz GÜNEROĞLU
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2

It is commonly accepted that the majority of maritime causalities are caused by human factors/errors. The role of human factor in maritime accident and the possible reasons of this argument can be quantitatively evaluated based on expert knowledge and multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology. To investigate what makes the first “human factor” in ship accidents, a hybrid approach was applied in this study. Two methods, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and the analytical network process (ANP) were proposed to evaluate the importance level of the human factors in maritime casualties. Quantitative evaluations of the human errors in maritime operations can greatly improve the decision-making process and reduce potential risks. As a result of this study, the top three priorities in the evaluation systems were found as: ‘ability, skills, knowledge’ (8.94%), ‘physical condition’ (8.77%), ‘weather - sea conditions’ (8.21%) and the least important criterion was ‘cargo characteristics’ (2.21%).


Zhibin Jiang, Chao Xie, Tingting Ji, Xiaolei Zou
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2
Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

Svetlana Nikoličić, Milorad Kilibarda, Predrag Atanasković, Ljubica Duđak, Andrea Ivanišević
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2
The challenges that logistics faces in the retail industry must be investigated in the context of the specific retail sector as well as the degree of development of the retail market. The research focus in this paper is on logistic processes in supermarket supply. The aim is to deepen the understanding of logistic processes and then to investigate the possibilities of their enhancement by applying radio frequency identification (RFID) as a higher level of information technology for product identification in retail supply chains. The research was conducted in one of the top ten trade companies in the emerging Serbian market. Simulation modelling was performed for one supply chain category, followed by quantification of time and cost performance of the current logistic processes (AS-IS model). Then, in accordance with the capabilities of RFID system, improvements are proposed and integrated into a new simulation model (TO-BE model). The obtained results can be utilised as part of a broader research when deciding on the implementation of modern information technologies in supply chains.

Mark E. Koryagin
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2

An urban passenger transportation problem is studied. Municipal authorities and passengers are regarded as participants in the passenger transportation system. The municipal authorities have to optimise road width and public transport frequency. The road consists of a dedicated bus lane and lanes for passenger cars. The car travel time depends on the number of road lanes and passengers’ choice of travel mode. The passengers’ goal is to minimize total travel costs, including time value. The passengers try to find the optimal ratio between public transport and cars. The conflict between municipal authorities and the passengers is described as a game theoretic model. The existence of Nash equilibrium in the model is proved. The numerical example shows the influence of the value of time and intensity of passenger flow on the equilibrium road width and public transport frequency.


Martina Baučić, Damir Medak
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2
The main objective of integrating Web GIS in airport emergency response should be to provide the most appropriate geospatial information to all participants. Airport emergency response still needs a model that will explain its complexity: its participants, their tasks and information needs. This paper presents the UML model of airport emergency response. Such a model facilitates a common understanding of the system by participants coming from airport, police, fire brigade, etc. It also enables institutional agreements for sharing data. The developers have got specifications of geospatial data and GIS functions imposed by participants and standards. A prototype Web GIS application is developed and presented to the users for evaluation. The prototype has shown how GIS functions can improve airport emergency response. The users have shown great interest, and they have great expectations in further integration of Web GIS in airport emergency response.

Bojan Jovanović, Katarina Mostarac, Dragana Šarac, Estera Rakić
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2

This paper provides a preview of the former stages through which the market of express postal services had gone and the possibilities of further development, both on the global and local level. The aim of this paper is to complete an estimation of the need for this type of express services using the competitive Lotka–Volterra model in Serbia. In order to reduce the complexity of the process, the division of competition was conducted in two segments: the public operator and the private segment (comprised of all private operators). The given model provides a description of a dynamic competition relationship by indicating the existence of the equilibrium point between the public and the private sectors, and the conditions of its stability. The obtained values indicate that the private sector affects the public operator. The existing predator-prey relationship gives preference to the private sector and can be described by the Lotka-Volterra model.


Haifu Wang, Liangcai Cai, Xiaolei Chong, Hao Geng
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2
A combined blast fence is introduced in this paper to improve the solid blast fences and louvered ones. Experiments of the jet engine exhaust flow (hereinafter jet flow for short) field and tests of three kinds of blast fences in two positions were carried out. The results show that the pressure and temperature at the centre of the jet flow decrease gradually as the flow moves farther away from the nozzle. The pressure falls fast with the maximum rate of 41.7%. The dynamic pressure 150 m away from the nozzle could reach 58.8 Pa, with a corresponding wind velocity of 10 m/s. The temperature affected range of 40°C is 113.5×20 m. The combined blast fence not only reduces the pressure of the flow in front of it but also solves the problems that the turbulence is too strong behind the solid blast fences and the pressure is too high behind the louvered blast fences. And the pressure behind combined blast fence is less than 10 Pa. The height of the fence is related to the distance from the jet nozzle. The nearer the fence is to the nozzle, the higher it is. When it is farther from the nozzle, its height can be lowered.

Davor Krasić, Luka Novačko
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 2
The most commonly used model in transport planning is the four-step model of transport demand. Although a number of improvements have been made to this model over the past six decades of use, its main weakness remains that the characteristics of the transport network are not included in the sub-model of trip generation. In the research presented in this paper the authors investigated the possibility of improving this key model. Based on the results of correlation and regression analysis it has been proven that the public transport network accessibility significantly affects the total number of generated trips. This opens up new possibilities for improving this model as well as the process of transport planning.

Marko Ševrović, Davor Brčić, Goran Kos
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1
Public transport (PT) subsidy provides the means to impose the optimal combination of fare and Level of Service (LoS) offered to passengers. In regions where one PT operator services multiple local communities on multiple lines it becomes hard to uniformly link the actual cost of a line and thus the LoS offered, to a particular local community. This leads to possible disproportions in the overall subsidy distribution that can result in being unfair to some local communities, mainly the ones that are sparsely populated or geographically isolated. In order to extricate this problem the appropriate level of PT subsidisation according to the average values in the European cities was investigated and the current subsidy policies in Croatia were investigated. Based on this research and the hypothesis that the offered LoS must be reflected in the subsidy amount a new subsidy distribution model was established that involves a series of analytical procedures and processes. This model introduces several factors used for the calculation of the actual share in costs. Thus, the amount of subsidies for individual lines in a region can be determined based on the actual service offered to the local community, The proposed model has been tested and successfully implemented in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in the Republic of Croatia.

Hassan Ziari, Hamid Behbahani, Amir Ali Amini
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

For economic evaluation of a highway development project, multiple criteria must be considered on a timeframe longer than the project implementation interval and a geographical area larger than the project zone. In this study, a framework is proposed based on the Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis (NL-LCCA) to assess the effect of highway development projects on mobility, safety, economy, environment and other monetizable criteria. In this approach, project impacts are estimated within physical boundaries of highway network over the network life cycle. This framework can be used as a decision-making support for evaluation and ranking of pre-defined development projects, proposing new cost-effective development projects, assessment of cost efficiency of existing highway network and budget allocation optimization.


Nikola Bakarić
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

Zvonko Kavran
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1



Francesco Castelluccio, Mario Catalano, Davide Fichera, Marco Migliore, Salvatore Amoroso
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1
The aim of this research is to find a solution for the standardization of road signs in the EU zone by a comparative analysis of different national sign systems to establish a common set from a single country. This work is based on the idea that road sign standardization might increase the safety level of transnational journeys and foster the relationships among the various members of the EU Community. This paper presents the outcome of the first step of the research, which focuses on the harmonization of danger signs. In more detail, a multicriteria approach is applied to rank 19 EU Member States on the basis of three main aspects: the installation cost of new signs, new sign learning issues and the effectiveness of sign systems. The study allows for the installation cost by quantifying the degree of similarity among road sign systems and the roadway network extension, on which new signs should be placed.

Wei Wu, Wanjing Ma, Kejun Long
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1
A protected left turn phase is often used at intersections with heavy left turns. This may induce a capacity gap between adjacent intersections along the arterial road among which only parts of intersection are with protected left turn phase. A model for integrated optimization of protected left turn phases for adjacent intersections along the arterial road is developed to solve this problem. Two objectives are considered: capacity gap minimization and capacity maximization. The problems are formulated as Binary-Integer-Linear-Programs, which are solvable by standard branch-and-bound routine. A set of constraints have been set up to ensure the feasibility of the resulting optimal left turn phase type and signal settings. A field intersections group of the Wei-er Road of Ji’nan city is used to test the proposed model. The results show that the method can decrease the capacity gap between adjacent intersections, reduce the delay as well as increase the capacity in comparison with the field signal plan and signal plan optimized by Synchro. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential of the proposed approach to be applied in coordinated design of left turn phases between adjacent intersections along the arterial road under different traffic demand
patterns.

Ali Ghasemi, Saeed Rouhi
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1
The problem of controlling a platoon of vehicles moving in one dimension is considered so that they all follow a lead vehicle with constant spacing between successive vehicles. The stability and the string stability of a platoon of vehicles with two independent and uncertain delays, one in the inter-vehicle distance and the other in the relative velocity information channels, are considered. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) using a simplifying factorization procedure and deploying the cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm to obtain exact stability boundaries in the domain of the delays, and (2) for the purpose of disturbance attenuation, the string stability analysis is examined. Finally, a simulation example of multiple vehicle platoon control is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Branislav Radnović, Radenko Miloš Marić, Vladana Radnović, Milena Ilić, Dragan Lukač
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

The aim of this paper is to determine, based on conducted marketing research, the level of passenger satisfaction with public transport services for the purpose of making better marketing decisions in the example of the City of Belgrade. The main task is to test the hypothesis on the existence of significant influence of factors, such as quality service, attitude and behaviour of employees (e.g. driver), adequate informing, quality of vehicles, line routes and timetable, on passenger satisfaction. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for interpreting the obtained results and examining the formulated hypothesis. Empirical research has shown that there is a significant correlation between the aforementioned factors and passenger satisfaction with public transport services. The obtained results provided recommendations and guidelines for improving and increasing the quality of public transport services. The research results also provide the basis for future research that could examine the relationship between passenger satisfaction with services and sub-groups within the analyzed factors.


Dušan Teichmann, Michal Dorda, Helena Bínová, Martin Ludvík
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

A typical trait of public transport is a spatially scattered demand. A route net that is operated by a carrier (or several carriers) has to be adapted to the demand. Public transport vehicles that are not used during a period of a day are usually parked in defined parking lots that have a given capacity. When the vehicle goes from the place where its schedule ends (usually a terminus of the last connection served by the vehicle) to the place where the vehicle should be parked, a non-productive journey occurs. The same occurs at the beginning of the vehicle schedule as well. The main goal of the paper is to present a mathematical model that enables minimization of the total length of all the non-productive journeys. Functionality of the proposed mathematical model was tested in the conditions of a real bus public transport network.


Sonja Mlaker Kač, Irena Gorenak, Vojko Potočan
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

The paper discusses theoretically and examines empirically the influence of the relationship commitment on collaborative behaviour in supply chains. In today’s unstable business environment companies should collaborate to achieve mutual goals and competitive advantage. Defining relationship commitment and collaboration in supply chains (from social exchange theory point of view) is the basis of the research of this paper. Our aim is to examine the influence of relationship commitment on collaboration in supply chains in Slovenian economy. The qualitative research part discusses if the relationship commitment between partners in supply chain influences the collaborative behaviour between partners and which are the antecedents of relationship commitment. The research is based on a quantitative analysis of the online questionnaire survey made on the Slovenian economy. The research results show strong influence of trust and relationship commitment on collaboration between partners in supply chains.


Wei Zheng, Juan Han, Weijie Kong, Lixiang Wang
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

The braking rate and train arresting operation is important in the train braking performance. It is difficult to obtain the states of the train on time because of the measurement noise and a long calculation time. A type of Group Stochastic M-algorithm (GSMA) based on Rao-Blackwellization Particle Filter (RBPF) algorithm and Stochastic M-algorithm (SMA) is proposed in this paper. Compared with RBPF, GSMA based estimation precisions for the train braking rate and the control accelerations were improved by 78% and 62%, respectively. The calculation time of the GSMA was decreased by 70% compared with SMA.


Sašo Murtič, Andrej Lisec
2015 (Vol 27), Issue 1

Throughout the history, the transportation of goods and related logistics have played an important role in human development and existence. This pertains to numerous interlinked processes, whose management is often linked to social system, international linkages, development of industry, market and market specifics. In modern times, the management of these processes is increasingly bound to globalization of production and market, moving of production to countries with cheaper labour force, environmental protection. The present Slovenian economy depends to a large extent on economies and corporate relations of the European Union and the world. Such inter-connectedness demands frequent transportation of semi-finished and finished goods. By providing timely delivery of goods, transportation consequently enables inter-organizational linkages and individual production, economic, market and other processes. Organizational and inter-organizational management of transport logistics demands profound understanding of transport flows, freight forwarding expertise and knowledge of transport, tax, environmental and other related regulations. Adequate knowledge and mastering of cultural, linguistic, national and other differences is important as well. The presented analysis and evaluation form the basis of the construction of inter-organizational model of logistics management in Slovenia.


Published by
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences
Online ISSN
1848-4069
Print ISSN
0353-532
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