Since the month of August 1992 an agreement has been available for signing based upon which the governments of the European countries participating in TER Project accept the obligation of instituting a fund to secure the sources for financing the completion of one of the most significant multi- national projects in Eastern Europe. For Croatia this assumes particular meaning because the project anticipates including our railway line from Botovo via Zagreb and Rijeka to Trieste as making part of a future main railway link from Kiev via Budapest, Zagreb, Rijeka, Trieste, Venice all the way to Barcelona.
The first railway line was introduced in Zagreb in 1862, while the Central Station was built in 1892. At the time of its construction the station was located to the south of the town outside the built-up urban area. For reasons of accelerated development of the urban area, undoubtedly supported by the railways as well, further continuing urban spread to the south and railway lines soon reached the point of confrontation, in particular the Central Station buildings and facilities for their location, size and level. The paper deals with different designs of the Central Station as anticipated in the urban area development plans over the period of past hundred years and the actual situation reported in practice.
An almost explosive growth of air transport and concern for environmental protection set a requirement for the enactment of regulations for the protection of atmosphere against aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Some essential features of subject provisions have been outlined as referring to the Promet, vol. 4, 1992, br. 6, 195-199 exhaust gases from jet aircraft engines. The expected effects of subject provisions have been discussed as well as the possible paths of development on designing environmentally more friendly jet engines.
The automatic data processing makes an absolute requirement of modem times, while the business organizations and institutions which fail to recognize this need and organize make arrangements for such data processing inevitably lag beh.znd the times and meet with difficulties in operations. This has fully b.een recognized in the ''Autoprijevoz' Division of the Croatian Posts in Split. The paper initially deals with the organization of transport and then discusses the need for the introduction of the automatic data processing while the authors subsequently review the system requirements as originating from this new method of data processing.
This paper deals with the issues of road, railway, river and postal traffic in East Croatia. Its Introduction section makes a review of the pre-war condition of traffic infrastructure facilities in the national region of East Croatia, as making part of the European integration processes, while being at the same time significant for the Republic of Croatia in the service of development of the entire national region. The paper further discusses damages from wartime devastation and their adverse impacts as felt in discrupture of traffic flows. The author elaborates and gives recommendations on the course of actions on the reconstruction as needed for prompt operation of the traffic system, in conjunction with the programs of construction and development of traffic infrastructure facilities in the post-war period.
Market makes an indispensable element of the development of democratic states. In the EC the internal transport market has already been structured, however there are a variety of unresolved issued. The economies of the nations of Central and East Europe must necessarily undergo restructuring, within the scope of European integration processes which then particularly refers to traffic. This makes an absolute prerequisite for a more comprehensive arrangement of relationships with the EC and its member states in this segment.
This paper gives recommendations for the application of Pegasus numerical algorithm for establishing the parameters needed for the computation of average vehicle speeds on two- way roads. The tables made by worked out by means of this method enable the substitution of incorrect diagrams that have been used up to this point of time.
Exceptionally high incidence of road traffic accidents with casualties and fatalities as related to the actual traffic volumes occur during the night. However only some 25% of traffic (viewed on the average) happens in the night - time period. The paper deals with an analysis of a variety of available data on traffic accidents and their consequences (with particular reference to the metropolitan area of Zagreb) which serve the author to draw uncountable evidence that the hazards of nighttime driving surpass (excell) the hazards of daytime driving. Furthermore nighttime road traffic accidents are by their consequences of more severe nature than the daytime, while high-quality road lighting substantially reduces both the incidence of accidents and their adverse consequences.
Road infrastructure as an inseparable element of community life and economy takes major position in a harmonized development of the process of simple reproduction and extended reproduction. This means that distortions in the segment of conceiving one consistent road infrastructure financing system yield a variety of negative implications reflecting themselves upon the road traffic subsystem and overall economic system. In this the facilities of road infrastructure develop into an element of destabilization of normal traffic system functioning being itself a subsystem of the economic system of Croatia keeping with it a dynamic interaction in the process of operation. This paper deals with respective distortions in the financing system and the necessity of its transformation within the scope of restructuring the Croatian economy. A basic prerequisite of the restructuring process rests in rational functioning of the investment activity which should be complex, comprehensive, and consistent without even minimum traces of being anemic, wavering or declarative
New Views of Marketing in Passenger Railway Traffic in the Light of More Vigorous Orientation of the Croatian Railways on to Market-Aspected Operations Marketing in traffic has its specific features detennined by the characteristics of the users of service and the service itself The reported share of the railways in passenger transport in the year 1955 was approximately 80%. Since then, it has reported a stable decrease to reach bare 10% in the year 1980. In the decade of 1981 do 1990, first a slight increase in the number of passengers and then an abrupt drop and final stabilization of the share of the railways up to about 20% was listed. In an effort to increase the number of passengers the railways must employ new modem methods of marketing activity. At the same time it must create technical and technological prerequisites in order to become attractive again for the potential passengers. This calls for indispensable investments in rolling stock, advertising and promotion campaigns, and particularly in skilled manpower.
This paper deals with the analysis of the prerequisites for the introduction of the traffic information system (ISP), taking social and technological aspects of traffic as respective points of departure. The very specific features of traffic (massive participation, public aspect large investments, influences upon community prosperity, and adverse impacts of traffic, international aspect interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary aspects) largely determine the traffic information system. The traffic information system has been defined as well as its organization or management both as of an independent system and as viewed within the scope of the community system of information. The traffic information system comprises the information segment designed for meeting the requirements of public information on traffic, and specialized information segment designed for management of the traffic system. For reasons of importance of the traffic information system in the process of successful management of the traffic system and a public information system, it has been recommended to have the development of the traffic information system in the jurisdiction of the administrative authorities in charge of traffic. High demand for road traffic, large investments in to the development of road traffic yet also in mitigating the impacts of traffic, highlight this traffic aspect as a priority one, in the process of the development of the traffic information system. A long-term information policy makes a prerequisite for the introduction of the traffic information system.
Postal and telecommunication infrastructure facilities make integral parts of the overall traffic and broadly-aspect economic system of any country. This paper deals with the new model of management structure of the Croatian Posts and Telecommunications (HPT), made upon the one-time abandoned pattern of organization as originally based upon the principles of self-management decentralization. Consequently, a new far more efficient and viewed socially far more rational organization system of posts and telecommunications has been required. The exposed organization model has been designed as a unique system with two sub-systems: Postal Authorities and Telecommunications Authorities linked with joint functions (services). On this basis, consequently, the organization of individual levels of postal and telecommunications network and individual geographic regions have been structured. Each organization i.e. management level has been structured according to the contents and scope of its assignments and the area of the region it covers. By way of interaction of organization (management) units, the organizational unity of the system has been achieved. This way the regular maintenance of the postal and telecommunications network is secured as well as the regular and standardized quality of domestic and international postal and telecommunications traffic.
Telecommunications facilities have since their inception reported being on a steady increase all over the world. This paper while reviewing the status in 57 nations with highest number of main telephone connections furnishes the information on their capacities, density per 100 inhabitants and increase viewed at an average annual rate over the period of 1969-1989 and 1979-1989. Comparisons regarding the gross national product of individual countries have been drawn. The countries included in this review possess over 97% of world telephone capacities.
The paper furnishes a review of different designs of diesel motor trains, and lists their manufacturers and users. The author discusses the basic properties of trains designed for suburban traffic and indicates the possible trends of future development. Individual practical propositions are committed to analysis regarding drive, transmission and operation of diesel motor trains. Furthermore, the criteria for the option of the diesel motor train in suburban traffic are reviewed.
In order to make possible making phone calls from public places (squares, streets, etc.) as well as shops or restaurants, public phones have been provided that automatically collect the charges. The ways of payment for use of phone have evolved over the years. The paper discusses the ways of collection of charges and provides a review of their features, advantages and disadvantages, and outlooks for the future.
The basic aspect that is the subject of interest in this paper refers to the air traffic management. If it is true that the structure of air transport makes a subsystem of air traffic also originating from the general theory of complex systems and the theory of modem management (structuring), then it appears from the theoretical and practical viewpoint possible and correct to decompose this subsystem in to a number of further subsystems of lower hierarchical level. Thus when dealing with the issue of air traffic management it is possible to discuss: the structure of air traffic authorities, the structure of air traffic as a system, the structure of transport service, the structure of passenger and freight services, internal structure of airlines, of airports, and of ATC, the structure of individual business functions and the structure of transport process.
A rational investment policy in market economy is absolutely rooted in scientifically established and accepted methodology and elaboration procedure. Based upon this kind of assessment it shall furnish highest guarantees for rationalization of loan funds pumped into the investment project. The paper deals with the effectiveness of the procedure of elaboration of the feasibility study because unless provided it would make impossible the implementation of a rational investment policy, within the framework of the market system of doing business. A series of methodological procedures being the basic elements of investment activities have been accentuated. In this, major import is assigned to a prospective investor given a wider scope of responsibilities considering the funds spent as an independent factor in the process of doing business and repayment of the negotiated loan.
This paper deals with the architecture of space information systems. These systems make part of the information science discipline: the space information science, dealing with compilation, processing, storing to memory and dissemination of space-related information within the scope of successful and effective making use of land, being itself a major national resource. Detailed review covers all contents of information system which in the majority of progressive nations make part of a separate scientific discipline of space information science.
This paper deals with some factors that exert influence upon the coefficient of adhesion in rail traction vehicles, as: fluids, speed, induced skidding, presence of particles, material of breaking pedals, forces of forward movement, etc. Knowledge of the value of influence of individual factors makes possible corresponding improvements in making use of available adhesion. The paper further discusses respective methods and devices making it possible. Some practical results are given in graphical presentation. Also, empirical equations are provided for computation of the coefficient of adhesion in the process of working out rail traction vehicle performances.
In order to take active part in the international division of labor it is highly necessary to secure linkage between the Danube navigation system and the Adriatic region. The Adriatic traffic corridor has always been exposed to rigorous international competition and unless adequate quality of services is granted it shall prove impossible for Croatia to attract the traffic from Central Europe when we already report delays regarding the construction of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal by not having yet started the projects indispensable on the provision of linkage between the Danube navigation system and the Adriatic region.
The paper deals with the interdependent quality of development of telecommunications and tourist trade, their relationships and mutual interests. Contribution of telecommunications is felt in the segment of quality of service, structuring and materialization of business policy of travel trade. Of contrast, the actions of demographic, economic, technological and social/cultural forces integrated by the tourist trade exert major impact upon the functioning and development of telecommunications as its infrastructure factor or specific segment. Travel market directly integrated into the international market most timely reacts to the world development trends and thus the development of telecommunications. The indispensable requirement for the introduction of new services shall further be accentuated in respective changes originating from the integration of twelve national markets of the EC into a single common market, while joining it shall prove possible only upon the elimination of technical obstacles to appearing on this market.
Former stages in the development of modem information systems in support of the transport service provision function have mostly produced intemally-aspected solutions. Such solutions could then be materialized in line with company's proper standardization. A powerful breakthrough in the field of processing and telecommunications technology enabled cooperation on a world-wide scale. The whole world becomes one single market and in this the exchange of people, commodities, and data assumes an entirely new role. A major share in this global linkage belongs to electronic computer systems for whose integrated operation we need the rules agreed-upon in advance: the standards thus become indispensable for inter-company informatization. Transport and commerce are among the first to be considered. The needs develop swiftly, and the concerned parties enter upon alliances as to facilitate negotiations. This grouping together starts with the pairs of companies, forwarding agents, industrial segments, research projects, institutions (UN Commission, ISO, EDI associations) and scientific and professional potentials. This paper deals with the main objective of linkage for purposes of exchanges of messages, meaning essentially two things: firs~ the accomplished aspect of international informatization with own information systems being at an adequately high level in order to make possible the exchange of messages, and second: establishing the prerequisites (standardization, organization, engineering, legal grounds, and infrastructure facilities). Special applications are available for medium and small companies and for big systems.
The world postal system is confronted with the existence of competition which increasingly takes predominance on the market of postal services, so that the posts are referred to the provision i.e. supply of high quality services and unification of their own interests with those of the airlines. In the year 1982 the posts introduced the Express Mail Service in an effort to match a rather aggressive policy of their competitors and organize the carriage of mail by means of the European night mail delivery system. The paper deals with the features and efficiency of the Express Mail Service in conjunction with the introduction of this service in the Croatian Posts. The conditions have been described for the provision of services through the posts while the financial effects reached on the market of express mail delivery have been indicated. The world market of these services is estimated to be worth over USA 14 billion, with a 1 0% annual growth rate. The conclusions section furnishes the recommendations of activities the Croatian Posts should implement on ensuring the prerequisites for an as high as possible utilization of urgent mail delivery.