Traffic&Transportation Journal
Sign In / Sign Up


Relationships Between External Factors and Pedestrian Accident Blackspots – A Case Study of the City of Zagreb
Mario Ćosić, Ljupko Šimunović, Marijan Jakovljević


Traffic accidents represent a social, health and political challenge in every country. Urban environments are characterized by intense traffic flows on the network, where different conditions resulting in interactions between motorised and non-motorised transport constantly occur, potentially increasing the risk of accidents. Although road accidents are considered as random events in space and time, a highly detailed analysis may establish correlations between road accidents and external factors (road infrastructure, traffic conditions, weather conditions, land use). This paper considers the impact of external factors on road accidents involving pedestrians in the City of Zagreb, which required an analysis of accident blackspots. The research conducted in this paper puts an emphasis on relations between external factors and accident blackspots involving pedestrians. The results can be used in planning pedestrian infrastructure and improving road safety.


Elvik R. A survey of operational definitions of hazardous road locations in some European countries. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2008;40(6): 1830–1835. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2008.08.001

Sørensen M. Best Practice Guidelines on Black Spot Management and Safety Analysis of Road Networks. The Institute of Transport Economics-TOI; 2007. 66 p.

Geurts K, Thomas I, Wets G. Understanding spatial concentrations of road accidents using frequent item sets. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2005;37(4): 787–799. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2005.03.023

Anderson TK. Kernel density estimation and K-means clustering to profile road accident hotspots. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2009;41(3): 359–364. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.12.014

Erdogan S, Yilmaz I, Baybura T, Gullu M. Geographical information systems aided traffic accident analysis system case study: city of Afyonkarahisar. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2008;40(1): 174–181. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2007.05.004

Steenberghen T, Dufays T, Thomas I, Flahaut B. Intra-urban location and clustering of road accidents using GIS: a Belgian example. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 2004;18(2): 169–181. Available from: doi:10.1080/13658810310001629619

Noland RB, Quddus MA. A spatially disaggregate analysis of road casualties in England. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2004;36(6): 973–984. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2003.11.001

LaScala EA, Gerber D, Gruenewald PJ. Demographic and environmental correlates of pedestrian injury collisions: a spatial analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2000;32(5): 651–658. Available from: doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00100-1

Blazquez CA, Celis MS. A spatial and temporal analysis of child pedestrian crashes in Santiago, Chile. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2013;50: 304–311. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2012.05.001

Priyantha Wedagama DM, Bird RN, Metcalfe AV. The influence of urban land-use on non-motorised transport casualties. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2006;38(6): 1049–1457. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2006.01.006

Šimunović L, Novačko L, Ćosić M. Road Network Safety Management in the Republic of Croatia. Modern Traffic. 2014. p. 240–244.

Hrvatske ceste d.o.o. Metodologija pristupa sigurnosti prometa. Zagreb; 2004. Croatian

Plug C, Xia J, Caulfield C. Spatial and temporal visualisation techniques for crash analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2011;43(6): 1937–1946. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.007

Levine N. Part IV: Spatial Modeling I Chaper 10: Kernel Density Interpolation. Washington DC; 2014.

Siddiqui C, Abdel-Aty M, Choi K. Macroscopic spatial analysis of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2012;45: 382–391. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.08.003

Gradski ured za strategijsko planiranje i razvoj grada - Odjel za statistiku. Statistički ljetopis Grada Zagreba. Zagreb; 2015. Croatian

Copyright (c) 2023 Mario Ćosić, Ljupko Šimunović, Marijan Jakovljević

Published by
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences
Online ISSN
Print ISSN
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Publons logo
© Traffic&Transportation Journal