Traffic&Transportation Journal
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Vol. 2 No. 1-2 (1990)
Published on 01.01.1900


Blagota Radović
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2
In its first part this paper deals with thereview of road traffic safety level fluctuationsin Yugoslavia and the R of Slovenia in the periodof the year 1970-1987.In its second part the paper provides acomparative analysis of some basic indices ofthe level of road traffic safety in Yugoslaviaand other Europeand countries in the year 1987.

Petar Petrović
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

This paper deals with respective changes in rail companies introduced with the Act on Enterprises {Official Gazette of the SFR of Yugoslavia No. 40/89) which from the legal aspect put the railways in the position of public services. By this the society has finally admitted the existence of public services with us. The railway is one of classical examples of public services. As such they are subject to contracting in passenger transport by a particular system which is not left to its dispositive of civil normative law but is also determined by cognitive rules making in specific. This paper provides a review of legal basis for contracting in passenger transport with rules putting the railways under obligation under given circumstances to conclude contracts for passenger transport. There follows a comprehensive review of liabilities of the railways for regular and safe passenger rail transport and the methods of redemption for damage in case of failure to provide a regular and safe passenger rail transportation.

Damir Šimulčik
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

Traffic infrastructure makes an inseparable part of the social and economic life of the country and plays an important part role in the sphere of a harmonized development of social reproduction. Inadequate conceiving of the policy of construction and maintenance results in a series of negative implications which manifest themselves in not drawing the benefits of geographic/traffic and geo-political location of the country and its individual regions. This paper deals with the diagnosing of non-existence of a long-term traffic policy and the policy of construction and maintenance .of facilities of traffic infrastructure which have adversely resulted in a series of unresolved relationships in all transport industry segments. A non-existence of clear concept of traffic policy over a longer period finds its expression in high transportation costs and missing adequate valorization of geographic/traffic and geo-political location of the SR of Croatia and Yugoslavia in the European traffic system. This referees us to the indispensable requirements of the process of accelerated restructuring in the sphere of conceiving of the traffic policy, construction orientation and realistic economic assessments of the investment operations without any 'tutoring' on the part of state authorities {administration} or else, traffic isolation will be slowly closing on us to turn in the near future into a gloomy reality in case we fail to radically change the investment policy some decades old.

Zdravko Happ
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

This paper discusses certain specific aspects and inevitable application of a system- oriented approach to the analysis of road traffic accidents as the basis for advanced analyst commitment. In the area of traffic accidents analysis an essential role is played by statistical processing of data. The accepted practice of statistical processing of RTA data compiled only by means of a Questionnaire cannot meet the requirements and expectations of an advanced analyst operation and commitment, mainly due to lesser reliability and deficiencies of the available data. Therefore the existing system of statistical data processing should be supplemented and advanced by processing of data from other more reliable sources of which the most important is related to the Road Traffic Accidents Data Bank created on the basis of expert verification of road traffic accidents.

Štefica Havoić
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

This paper deals with adequate organization of postal window services with basic reference to the working environment in individual units of postal services network. Based upon known standards and criteria for provision of quality services an example has been provided of making optimal the system of provision of postal services to the user at the windows on post offices. The method for the selection of the most adequate allocation of services to individual windows by application of the theory of services provision has been applied to the concrete situation of the services system involving three operating windows.

Franko Rotim, Vitomir Grbavac
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

In past decades data processing in corporations has been looking order and integration so that some major success could be expected only with the improvement and refinement of software instruments. Nowadays we have available procedures which make it possible for us to create better programs. These are: application generators, languages of the fourth generation, and inspection languages, in conjunction with some other instruments. However the fact is that up to this point of time computer ·data processing has generated numerous inadequately structured programs and incompatible data banks with reference to the application autonomy. In such conditions changes of the user’s requirements and demands have often caused changes to the data models which have then in turn affected adversely the overall application. Preventing this adverse impact could be materialized only through a very strict, discipline oriented and slow procedure. The resolution of this issue rests in the strategic planning of information resources required for operations of a concrete business organization. Therefore the models of data represent stable basis on which procedures are established in a well-organized and managed data processing. In fact they represent the link between the entities composed of attributes. The combination of entities and attributes a dually makes the basis for future data processing. It is further possible by making use of modern software instruments for management of software instruments data banks to add new entities and attributes without the known difficulties. In the light of the above this paper deals. With the information engineering as a series of disciplines required for the construction of computerized organization based upon an integrated system for data bank management. The basic prerequisite of information engineering is that the data are stored and that they are maintained by different types of software system of data. Therefore the construction of blocks of information engineering must be available in conjunction with modern techniques of development. The fact is that it represents a great challenge to structure a data system without basic blocks of information engineering because - structuring a modern data processing system without basic blocks of information engineering is equal to building castles in the sand.

Božidar Javorović
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

An ever increasing growth of traffic and its importance in the economic and overall social life of nations and countries on one side and respective increase of fatalities and material loss (damage to property} on the other set an indispensable requirement of increased care and concern over the safety and quality of traffic. Safety is to the best of interests of any individual and all road users and all parties having something to do with this activity. As an important factor of business efficiency and success road traffic safety becomes more and more an important part of preoccupations of managerial bodies of transport and other companies. As the internal control makes an aspect of protection and safety activity having a special role in materialization of traffic safety in transport operations, it is to the best interests and a responsibility of managerial bodies to act in this area on a permanent basis and continuously pay adequate attention to the issue of safety. It is important for the quality of road traffic/transport activities and success in business operations.

Jolanda Babić
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

The issues dealt with in these two papers fall into two sections: the first covers model instruments in support of traffic system planning and current new planning objectives; the second presents the model structure as an _instrument for reaching these objectives. The existing planning models are static, often established in the form of assignments for optimalization including certain assumptions on the behavior of users or condition of the economy defined in terms of time. As they cover large areas, minor changes in demand limited in terms of space are not shown in respective models. For their review the construction of new models is required, which, for reasons of different contents, are not related to the global (universal) model. They usually do not include the parameters by means of which we can establish the responses of the system to different changes or parameters to describe these changes. For these shortcomings and changed requirements the society i.e. demand for traffic service presents to the transport system a different basis for planning and structuring is required as an aid for system planning. This further sets the requirement of new introduction of planning objectives. From the aspect of objectives the paper deals with the two planning methods: {aj an established method which channels planning into meeting the future demand assessed on the basis of projected economics development and (b) a parallel planning of demand and supply. Supply has apart from the task of meeting demand one major task to complete, namely to generate and channel new demand in response to a favorable supply .

Josip Kukec
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

This paper deals with the possibilities of application of the information system in rail transport process meeting the basic objective of improvements in the existing rail transport service. Particular reference has been drawn to the issue of operative planning and monitoring of the completion of transportation process and timetables on a computer.

Ivan Bošnjak
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

Initial 'commercial' ISDN marketing-mix applications confirm the import of marketing in successful implementation of ISDN. Within insufficiently researched complex of ISDN marketing issues the paper presents the concept of the required more vigorous optimal marketing of ISDN on line with the actual environment and requirements of the users. Promotion activities in such approach are only part of marketing instruments. The paper initially defines the basic ISDN marketing-mix variables with some relevant elements and respective attributes. On the level of aggregate variables an optimal model has been proposed which suggests a more efficient combination of ISDN marketing-mix. Modular aspect, flexibility of technical and technological solutions and regulatory control increases the scope of optimal marketing.

Stipe Ćurković
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

Information management Systems have in their former relatively short period of application furnished amazing results in coordination efforts and efficiency of all subjects in a transportation chain particularly in the area of integrated and multi-modal transport aspects i.e. in big industrial hubs where all traffic aspects coexist and intersect. In a special review this paper deals with an exceptional role of information sy stems in rail/road transport (piggy-back) in port/forwarding activities and sea transport. Priority is assigned to optimal algorithms of control/management by means of computer data processing with feedback loops i.e. by means of BASE III Plus electronic computer with optimal algorithms from the software package to be further developed place the piggy-back transport aspect.

Jovo Ivović
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

Some thirty years passed since the commencement of a more vigorous development of modern container vessels. Up to this point of time we have had operating four generations of container vessels while the fifth, still more modern one is in the process of preliminary designing activities. In the period of 1970-1989 liner (general) cargo that lends to containerization reported a 300% increase (ba three times}, the capacities of container vessel fleet by 16, and container transport by 12 so that the share of containerized cargo in the overall general cargo operations increased from 17,5% in 1970 to 77,4% in 1989. In the year 1989 there were 4,300 container vessečs of 2 909 00 teu capacity. The development of port/sea container capacities has been followed by the development of containerization in shipping. In the past decade port container traffic has been developing at the average annual rate of 15,9% and then until the year 1984 at 4,2% to reach over the past two years the figure of 8% annual growth. The existing annual container port traffic in sea ports of the worlds is 76 million teu while in the year 200 it is planned to reach the average annual growth of 4,2% to be in the order of 115 milion teu. The development of mainland container bridges makes a positive factor of total development of containerization in transcontinental relations.

Husein Džanić, Fatmir Džanić
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

This paper deals with the impacts of carbon oxides (C02) from motor exhaust emissions upon changes in the environment, warming up of the Earth and changes of regional and global climate. It has been established that the average annual emission from natural sources is 700 to 1000 x J09 tons of carbon oxides in conjunction with additional 30 x 109 tons introduced by human activities in burning fossil fuels of which some 17. 9 draw origin from mo tor traffic. Global annual concentrations of C02 increases by approximately 0,2% because human beings obtain some 90% of their power needs from burning fossil fuels. It has been established that in the world road motor vehicles emit 7,62 x 109 tons of co2 out of the total emission which is about 42,57 x l 09 tons in the year 1988. Road motor vehicles in Yugoslavia pollute the atmosphere with 21,41% x 106 tons with the annual increase of l, 78% and share in global pollution of 0,28% C02. In this pol1ution Croatia participates with 5,65 x 1()6 tons with the annual increase of 4,19% and its share in global pollution of 0,074% co2 . The author recommends gradual decrease of co2-emission by 50% through reduction of concentrations of 400 ppm in the air to the maximum which may only be attained by substitution in the consumption of fossil fuels. In road traffic gasoline and diesel fuels can successfully be substituted by hydrogen and thus help avoiding inevitable catastrophic consequences in the Earth's biosphere.

Ivo Marković
1990 (Vol 2), Issue 1-2

Introduction of piggy-back transport aspect as a sub-system of multi-modal transport, especially the latest 'C' technology, enables efficiency of capital investments in the order of 17-20%, reduces transportation costs throughout the transportation chain as compared to traditional traffic aspects by 40% (on the average), increases productivity at least by 500% while the capital equipment writes off in ll years (2 to 3 times quicker than upon investments in traditional transport aspects}. From the listed quite interesting results obtained in progressive nations (Federal Republic of Germany, United States, etc.) originates the need for a more vigorous introduction of piggy-back transport in our country. In all basic Yugoslav documents for the term period of up to the year 2000 (medium-term and long- term) the orientation towards a more timely introduction of these new transport technologies has been supported.

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University of Zagreb, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences
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